Lee, J., Henriksen, L., Rose, S., Moreland-Russell, S., Ribisl, K.. (2015). A Systemic Review of Neighborhood Disparities in Point-of-Sale Tobacco Marketing. American Journal of Public Health, 105(9), e8-e18. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2015.302777
The authors of this article looked at many different papers already written to try and find disparities in the areas where tobacco is sold. They looked at sociodemographic neighborhood characteristics to and sales reports to see where most tobacco products are marketed and sold. The results they found where that poorer and predominantly black neighborhoods are the areas where tobacco products are most commonly marketed and therefore sold. I liked this source for my paper because it highlights some of the areas where people are most affected by tobacco marketing. This could indicate why some people start smoking, it may have more to do with what they see in their everyday lives and what seems to be socially acceptable to them. “. . . it is clear from industry documents that the tobacco industry has calibrated its marketing to target specific demographic groups defined by race, ethnicity, income, mental health status, gender, and sexual orientation. Framed as an issue of social and environmental justice, research has documented historical racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities in the presence of tobacco billboards, racial disparities in total tobacco marketing volume, and targeting of menthol cigarettes to communities with more Black residents.”
Filippidis, F. T., Agaku, I. T., Vardavas, C. I.. (2015). The Association Between Peer, Parental influence and Tobacco Product Features and Earlier Age of Onset of Regular Smoking Among Adults in 27 European Countries. European Journal of Public Health, 814-818. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckv068
The authors of this article interviewed many people who have or do smoke under the age of 40 from 27 European countries and asked them specific questions to find out what influenced them to start smoking. One of the biggest discoveries that they made was that most of the people interviewed began smoking before thy turned 18. “Respondents reported their age at regular smoking onset and factors that influenced their decision to start smoking, including peer influence, parental influence and features of tobacco products. Multi-variable logistic regression, adjusted for age; geographic region; education; difficulty to pay bills; and gender, was used to assess the role of the various pro-tobacco influences on early onset of regular smoking (i.e. <18 years).” The mean age that people started smoking was 16.6 years of age in these European countries. What I can take from this is that there is a variety of factors that can influence people to start smoking, and start young. The questions asked were too many to list here but there were three categories of influences: peer-influence, parental influence, and tobacco product features.
Doran, N., Trim, R. S.. (2015). Correlates of other Tobacco Use in a Community Sample of Young Adults. Addictive Behaviors, 51, 131-135. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2015.07.023
The authors of this article surveyed a sample of 319 young adults who had to have used a tobacco product and consumed alcohol in the last month to find which demographics are more likely to use tobacco products other than cigarettes. Users tended to be Caucasian and young. Tobacco use seems to also be connected to impulsivity and alcohol consumption. I had read in other articles I plan to use as sources that impulsivity is a big factor when it comes to younger people using tobacco products, including cigarettes. This is another source that highlights the correlation between impulsivity at a young age and smoking, but it also points out that tobacco use and alcohol use could be related as well. “Factors that have been associated with young adult ANTP use include impulsivity, other substance use, cigarette use, male sex, family tobacco use, and White ethnicity.”
Cheetham, A., Allen, N. B., Schwartz, O., Simmons, J. G., Whittle, S., Byrne, M. L., . . . Lubman, D.I.. Affective Behavior and Temperament Predict the Onset of Smoking in Adolescence. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/adb0000048
180 adolescents were surveyed multiple times between the ages of 12 and 17 to discover if and when they started smoking as well as what factors led to that decision. Children that start smoking tend to be more aggressive and less positive, the study claims. These youth were also found to have “lower levels of self-reported temperamental Effortful Control.” This article was helpful to me because it highlighted some of the psychological factors that can lead to smoking, especially at an early age. This source cites a lot of works by other authors in the field and is very scientific in nature.