Synthesis Matrix

Research Question:  Is my consumption of second-hand clothing a positive action that advocated for businesses? Or was I taking resources intended for people who needed them more than I did?

Fetishized thrifting culture contributes to gentrification The Gentrification of Thrifting Understanding the purchasing behaviour of second-hand fashion shoppers in a non-profit thrift store context Trade and Transformations of Secondhand Clothing: Introduction
Type of Source Substantive Substantive Scholarly – Peer-Reviewed Scholarly
Purpose Inform those about the impact of thrift shopping and how it affects lower-class communities Inform those about the impact of thrift shopping and how it affects lower-class communities Understanding the purchasing behaviour of second-hand fashion shoppers in a non-profit thrift store context Inform readers about the process of second-hand clothing shops and how they help reduce waste in our world.
Intended Audience Higher-class secondhand/resale shoppers Higher-class secondhand/resale shoppers Second-hand shop owners
Credibility x x Peer Reviewed Scholarly
Positive impacts in increased popularity of thrift shops “Goodwill Industries and The Salvation Army both employ community members and help surrounding communities by using funds to support individuals and communities economically, allowing the two thrift chains to both employ and serve surrounding communities” (Bither) “It’s financially responsible, environmentally friendly, and can be a fun and exciting experience. For many young, economizing people, thrifting was/is an affordable way to bring more variety to one’s wardrobe and explore identity through fashion.” (Tabio)

“It reduces the amount of clothing waste in landfills and cuts back on the demand for new clothes produced through child labor overseas.” (Tabio)

“Low-income people and college students having a relatively small budget are more likely to shop at thrift stores selling gently used products at lower prices” (Seo & Kim)

“People who care about sustainability are more likely to shop at thrift stores than people who are indifferent regarding sustainability” (Seo & Kim)

“If we recycle unused clothes, that means we won’t be paying the price in the future.” (Norris)

“Clothes get a longer lifespan.” (Norris)

“That means one pair of jeans could be used by someone else’s sibling, cousin, or friend. You paid a small amount and the benefits were a hundred times over.” (Norris)

“you might have to be penny pinching at least once in your lifetime and secondhand clothing stores have been supporting people of all income ranges for a long time.” (Norris)

Negative impacts in increased popularity of thrift shops “Their rise in popularity as well as the radical shift in their image has prompted them to cater to a more elite range of clients.” (Bither) “Since then the influx of demand by more economically-advantaged people has caused many thrift stores to raise their prices, exacerbating income inequality and effectively marginalizing the population that needs their resources the most” (Tabio)
Resources that the working-class and low-income communities lose “Thrift stores that can’t keep pace with these upgrades were forced to close for good when they ran out of funds…the recent store closures leave many members of these communities without affordable ways to buy clothing and other household items” (Bither)

“Affluent groups who shop at more traditional thrift stores take away valuable resources from communities who rely on those resources to survive.” (Bither)

“economic reality is turbulent and even used clothes are out of reach.” (Tabio)
The gentrification of thrift stores “Hubbard (Urban Studies Professor Philip Hubbard at King’s College) stated that more affluent young people tend to shop at both thrift stores and boutique vintage stores, but shopping at the latter tends to signal the gentrification of communities.” (Bither) “that the additional business allows privileged people to come into these areas to shop, live, or build their own businesses, they often displace those already living and working there.” (Tabio)
Solutions “One way to do so is to look for stores that cater to your economic status, the types of places that provide lower prices than found at a traditional retailer but don’t take away resources from others who are more in need.” (Tabio)

“shop at stores that give back to marginalized communities in a meaningful way” (Tabio)

Blog Post – Sources

Fetishized Thrifting Culture Contributes to Gentrification

Bither, Catherine, and Sharon Dzielak. The Miscellany News. 18 Apr. 2019, miscellanynews.org/2019/04/18/opinions/fetishized-thrifting-culture-contributes-to-gentrification/. Accessed 5 Mar. 2020.

 and The Gentrification of Thrifting

Tabio, Sara. “The Gentrification of Thrifting.” Medium, Cult. Magazine – Hunter College, 13 Nov. 2019, medium.com/@saratabio/the-gentrification-of-thrifting-52907863475b.

are two articles that are popular sources which means that they were written to inform and educate people on a topic but were not written by a scholarly person. These are two essays written towards those who want to educate themselves on the effect of their contributions when it comes to the second-hand shopping community.  The audience is mostly privileged people who shop second hand because it is trendy and fun and almost a game.

Understanding the Purchasing Behaviour of Second-hand Fashion Shoppers in a Non-profit Thrift Store Context

Seo, Min Jeong, and Minjeong Kim. “Understanding the Purchasing Behaviour of Second-Hand Fashion Shoppers in a Non-Profit Thrift Store Context.” International Journal of Fashion Design, Technology and Education, vol. 12, no. 3, 2019, pp. 301–312., DOI:10.1080/17543266.2019.1611945.

and Trade and Transformations of Secondhand Clothing: Introduction

Norris, Lucy. “Trade and Transformations of Secondhand Clothing: Introduction.” Taylor & Francis, 1 May 2015, www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.2752/175183512X13315695424473

are two articles that are scholarly sources which means these sources were written by experts in the said particular field and serve to keep others interested in that field up to date on the most recent news. Both sources are peer-reviewed.  Their targeted audience is those who want to understand how second-hand shopping starts, works, and delivers in the end.  The purpose of these two articles is to show how resale/thrift/second-hand stores operate to fit the needs of their consumers.

Blog Post on “The New Meaning of Mobility”

In VCU’s Space and Place, Christene Rosen’s article, The New Meaning of Mobility goes into depth about the question of what is mobility and what is it used for? At first, she gives the socioeconomic definition of mobility which is essentially “American success”.  Eventually, Rosen gives the actual known definition of mobility which is ‘freedom of movement across physical space”. After giving the different definitions of the words Rosen goes more into how theoretical meaning of mobility and uses that term as an innuendo to technological devices, more specifically, cell phones.  Rosen explains how the new mobility is using geo-fencing and targeting to get people to bu things that they are interested in.

Throughout the article, Rosen refers to many sources throughout the article like The New York Times and more specifically to an interview with the Wall Street Journal where Eric Schmidt, the old CEO of Google, talks about how because of the geo-tracking that is incorporated in phones and websites like Yelp and Google Maps, “we know roughly who you are, roughly what you care about, roughly who your friends are.”  These applications keep track of where you go so they can promote products to you so you can spend more money.  Every site you visit and every picture you post leaves a footprint.  This article is targeted at everyone in today’s society who has an electronic like a smartphone or tablet.  More specifically targeted at young adults wh0 have been familiar with cell phones and electronics since childhood because they grew up with them.  Rosen states that the increase in technology use in young adults stunts the production of starting new lives away from their parents and becoming independent with their own children because of money concerns.

The question started as “what is mobility and what is it used for”.  Towards the end of the article, it is kind of transformed into “how is technology is diminishing and dehumanizing us as people?”  Because we have a constant connection with people who could be across the world, tangible real-life interactions are not as common because you could stay in touch with someone very easily with one quick text.  I believe this source is a secondary source because Rosen is giving her own opinions and facts but is also referring to other sources throughout the article.

Unit 2 Essay Assignment Understanding and Ideas

For this essay, we have to choose a topic/question that we want to find an answer to and construct a first-person research narrative type of essay.  Research should be finding things that expand the topic/question.  When answering the question no bias is allowed.  Along with this essay should be a synthesis paper which connects all 3-5 sources together.

Topic Ideas:

  • Why mental health in teens has deteriorated over the years
  • How global warming is affecting our earth/how much time do we have left

 

Individual Multimodal Narrative

In the spring of 2018, I went on a trip to Cusco, Peru with my high school Spanish class. This trip was my first time leaving the country and I was so excited to experience a different culture. One day while we were in Peru, there were no group activities planned, so all of the students were allowed to explore Cusco. My friends and I decided to walk around the city, and we ended up walking down a street that was right off of our hotel. This particular street had a wide variety of stores, ranging from local food markets to unique boutiques. As we were navigating our way through Cusco, I heard a group of local boys snickering and whispering in front of us. My friends and I decided to ignore them, however, after continuous laughing, they ran up to us and shouted “gringos”. I found this encounter amusing because a gringo is someone who is considered a foreigner from the perspective of a native Spanish speaker. Later that day, I reflected on the situation and how it could have gone much differently if the same thing happened to someone else. While I can understand how someone could be embarrassed by being called a gringo, I don’t believe that it is an offensive word. The native Peruvians were not wrong in calling us ‘gringos’ because my friends and I were tourists in the city of Cusco.

Video I happened to get of the children calling us gringos while videotaping the sceneray.  Taken by me.

Just like in China Mieville’s book, The City and The City,  I felt like I was committing a breach on the native’s territory. Mieville defines the word “breach” as an “illegal movement or contact between the two cities” (Mieville). The local people viewed me as an outsider because I was invading their home for my pleasure.

Even though this trip was sponsored by the Spanish department at my school, this trip was open to anyone at my school who was interested in visiting Peru. Many of my friends who went on the trip had never taken a Spanish class and could not speak a word of Spanish. However, that did not stop them from having an amazing time exploring Cusco and learning about the rich culture of Peru.

One time when the entire tour group was together, we went to a local shopping centre to get food. Before we entered the restaurant, those who could speak Spanish had to teach the non-Spanish speakers how to order a hamburger in Spanish so that they could communicate with the workers. The non-Spanish speakers had to ignore their instinct to speak in English, and they instead had to speak the Peruvian language. Like in Mieville’s book, when a person from one city looked into the other city, they were not allowed to look because it would be considered a breach. In reality, those people were unseeing, which means one’s eyes open without really noticing anything. For my friends on the trip who could not speak Spanish, they did not have a choice but to unsee that part of the culture.

How my friends who cannot Speak conversational Spanish act

While our group spent a total of 9 days in Peru, a lot of that time was spent travelling from one place to another. As we travelled through the country, the scenery ranged from beaten-up towns to beautiful landscapes. When the group stopped to hike around various historical sites, we were only allowed to travel on the path as to not disrupt or destroy any historical sites or artifacts. One of the sites that we hiked at was Machu Picchu. Machu Picchu, a historical landmark, was created in 1450, and it is considered very sacred to the locals. According to China Mievell’s book, those parts of Machu Picchu that were not for the group to walk all over are considered ‘alters.’ ‘Alters’ are “zones belonging entirely to the other, unseen city” (Mieville) and the pathways through the ‘alter’ areas were ‘cross-hatched’ areas which are “liminal zones in which citizens of both cities can exist, though ‘unseeing’ each other” (Mieville).

Friends and I documenting our time in Peru
Photo of me and my group posing on the allowed walking grounds by Machu Picchu. Taken by Group Leader: Sra. Murray

I believe when it comes to a foreign place, a lot of China Mieville’s terminology and rules in his book come into play. Even though one might not despise that a foreign country or area they travelled to, unseeing things one should not see, and respecting alters, totals, and breaches while somewhere you are unfamiliar with is respectful and will keep you safe.

#multimodalnarrative

1st Draft Multimodal Essay

Back in 2018, I took a trip to Cusco, Peru with my high school Spanish class.  This trip was my first time ever leaving the country and I couldn’t have more excited to experience the different cultures.  One day there were no group activities planned so, we had the day to explore by ourselves. I decided to just walk around and maybe stop by a restaurant and grab a bite to eat.  As I was finding my way around I heard a group of local boys snickering and whispering behind me. I was not familiar with my surroundings so I decided to ignore it. After continuous laughing, they finally ran up to me and shouted: “look at that gringa”.  A gringa is someone considered a foreigner from the perspective of Spanish-speaking countries. Everyone around, including me, in my school tourist group, thought the experience was amusing and not offensive. When this event happened, I thought about how the situation could have gone differently if the same thing happened to someone else.  I could understand how someone could get embarrassed by this occurring but not offended because technically the children were not wrong because a ‘gringa’ is what I was at the time. This event made me realize how there are so many different types of people everywhere and that maybe I did not belong in Peru. Just like in China Mieville’s book “The City and The City” I felt like I conducted a breach for being somewhere I am not supposed to be.  A breach is known in Mieville’s book as “illegal movement or contact between the two cities” (Mieville).  The local people saw me as an outsider because that is exactly who I was. I was invading their home for my own pleasure.

Even though I travelled with my Spanish class to this beautiful country, the Peru trip was not just for kids in a Spanish class, it was for everyone and anyone who wanted to go.  A few friends of mine heard about this opportunity and thought it was too good to be true so even though they had absolutely no experience with Spanish countries or even speaking the Spanish language they decided to go on the trip.  Because some of the other kids who went on the trip could not utter a word of Spanish other than ‘hola’ and ‘baño’, they were at a bit of a disadvantage. When those who could not speak Spanish had to communicate, they were going in blind.  Like in Mieville’s book, when a person from one city was looking into the other city, they were not really looking because they were not allowed to. In reality, those people were unseeing or ignoring their surroundings. For my friends on the trip who could not speak Spanish, they did not really have a choice but to unsee that part of the culture because they did not understand the foreign language.

Someone not knowing how to speak conversational Spanish
This is what my friends who did not know almost any Spanish would say the entire trip.

Of course, while the group was in Peru, we did not travel ever square inch of the immaculate, breathtaking country.  While we were there we travelled to both Lima and Cusco Peru. For most people in the group, this was a lot of our first times being out of the country let alone Peru.  While we were there, a lot of the time was spent travelling from place to place, activity to activity. During those travels, we would go through some quite sketch or off-limit areas but also some very beautiful, astonishing, and inclusive areas.  For instance, when the entire group would go on hikes towards Machu Pichu or any other historical structure that we saw we would have to stay on the path so we would not disrupt or destroy any historical sites or artifacts. Machu Picchu is an old and fragile landmark that really should only be looked at and not touched.  According to China Mievell’s book, those parts that were not for the group and me to walk all over were considered ‘alters’, “zones belonging entirely to the other, unseen city” (Mieville) and the pathways through the ‘alter’ areas were a bit of ‘cross-hatched’ areas which are “liminal zones in which citizens of both cities can exist, though ‘unseeing’ each other” (Mieville).

Friends and I documenting our time in Peru
My friends and I posing in front of Machu Picchu

I believe when it comes to a foreign area, a lot of China Mieville’s terminology and rules in his book come into play.  Even though one might not despise that specific foreign country or area they travelled to, unseeing things one should not see, and respecting alters, totals, and breaches while somewhere you are unfamiliar with is respectful and will keep you safe.

Multimodal Narrative 1st Draft

IMG_1996 IMG_1783 Back in 2018, I took a trip to Cusco, Peru with my high school Spanish class.  This trip was my first time ever leaving the country and I couldn’t be more excited to experience the different cultures.  One day there was no group activities planned so we had the day to explore by ourselves. I decided to just walk around and maybe stop by a restaurant and grab a bite to eat.  As I was finding my way around I hear a group of local boys snickering and whispering behind me. I was not familiar with my surroundings so I decided to ignore it. After continues laughing they finally ran up to me and shouted: “look at that gringa”.  A gringa is someone considered a foreigner from the perspective of Spanish-speaking countries. It didn’t necessarily hurt my feelings but it made me realize how there are so many different types of people everywhere and that maybe I did not belong in Peru.  Just like in China Mieville’s book “The City and The City” I felt like I conducted a breach for being somewhere I am not supposed to be.  A breach is known in Mieville’s book as “illegal movement or contact between the two cities” (Mieville).  The local people saw me as an outsider because that is exactly who I was. I was invading their home for my own pleasure.

 

Even though I travelled with my Spanish class do this beautiful country, the Peru trip was not just for kids in a Spanish class, it was for everyone and anyone who wanted to go.  A few friends of mine heard about this opportunity and thought it was too good to be true so even though they had absolutely no experience with Spanish countries or even speaking the Spanish language.  Because some of the other kids who went on the trip could not utter a word of Spanish other than ‘hola’ and ‘baño’, they were at a bit of a disadvantage. When those who could not speak Spanish had to communicate, they were going in blind.  Like in Mieville’s book, when a person from one city was looking into the other city, they were not really looking because they were not allowed to. In reality, those people were unseeing or ignoring their surroundings. For my friends on the trip who could not speak Spanish, they did not really have a choice to unsee that part of the culture because they did not understand the foreign language.

Of course, while the group was in Peru, we did not travel ever scare inch of the immaculate, breathtaking country.  While we were there we travelled to both Lima and Cusco Peru. For most people in the group, this was a lot of our first times being out of the country let alone Peru.  While we were there, a lot of the time was spent travelling from place to place, activity to activity. During those travels, we would go through some quite sketch or off-limit areas but also some very beautiful, breathtaking, and inclusive areas.  For instance, when the entire group would go on hikes towards Machu Pichu or any other historical structure that we saw we would have to stay on the path so we would not disrupt or destroy any historical sites or artifacts. According to China Mievell’s book, those parts that were not for the group and me to walk all over were considered ‘alters’, “zones belonging entirely to the other, unseen city” (Mieville) and the pathways through the ‘alter’ areas were a bit of ‘cross-hatched’ areas which are “liminal zones in which citizens of both cities can exist, though ‘unseeing’ each other” (Mieville).

I believe when it comes yo a foreign area, a lot of China Mieville’s terminology and rules in his book come into play.  Even though one might not despise that specific foreign country or area they travelled to, unseeing things one should not see, and respecting alters, totals, and breaches while somewhere you are unfamiliar with is respectful and will keep you safe.

Story for Multimodal Narrative

Back in 2018, I took a trip to Cusco, Peru with my high school Spanish class.  This trip was my first time ever leaving the country and I couldn’t be more excited to experience the different cultures.  One day there was no group activities planned so we had the day to explore by ourselves. I decided to just walk around and maybe stop by a restaurant and grab a bite to eat.  As I was finding my way around I hear a group of locals snickering and whispering behind me. I was not familiar with my surroundings so I decided to ignore it. After continues laughing they finally ran up to me and shouted: “look at that gringa”.  A gringa is someone considered a foreigner from the perspective of Spanish-speaking countries. It didn’t necessarily hurt my feelings but it made me realize how there are so many different types of people everywhere and that maybe I did not belong in Peru.  Just like in China Mieville’s book “The City and The City” I felt like I conducted a breach.

Connection between Gallery 5 and Walker’s Article “Buried in Unremissive Ground”

Throughout the years, the building that now holds Gallery 5’s exhibits and shows were many different things including a firehouse, police station, a jailhouse, and a firehouse/police station museum and even a family home.  At some points between when the building was constructed in 1883 and in between the different types of establishments that would open up and shut down, the structure had points in its life where it was left empty, abandoned and left to collect dust.

During its earlier days, the Steamer Company No. 5 building was work for the elite, some would say, heroic people of Richmond, police officers and firefighters.  But they were not the only type of society who would enter the building around this time because it was also a jailhouse which held criminals. Like the differences between Hollywood Cemetary and the “Burial Ground for Negros” near Lumpkins “Jail”, two different types of people would flow throughout this building and they would be treated completely different based on who they were.  The firemen and officers would be treated with respect and gratitude while those in the jailhouse were seen as degenerates and less than those who were ‘elite’.

In the more recent days of Galler r, they have many different types of events and some of these said events have age restrictions due to the type of content the event might bring.  For the ones who were put to rest in Hollywood Cemetary, the had certain characteristics about them that let them get an advantage. In this case, their advantages would be that they were white, important, and most likely had money.  For events such as some Burlesque shows, event-goers need to be a certain age or else they are not allowed in and they cannot do anything about it because those are the rules. Just like those buried near Lumpkins jail, they were not given the same opportunities due restriction that they cannot change, like the color of their skin.

Gallery 5 is a non-profit organization that shows talented peoples artwork.  Because it is non-profit, all of the employees are volunteers. Gallery 5 is also only the bottom half of the entire Steamer Co. No. 5 building because of economic struggles like rent and landlord being greedy.  Because the building is the oldest standing fire station in Richmond, and because it was a family home, the daughter who grew up in the house most recently bought the property to keep it alive. In “Buried in Unremissive Ground”, Walker speaks about the fact that Hollywood Cemetary is well funded, respected and taken care of while the “Negros Burial Grounds” were covered up by interstates, parking lots and was almost covered up by a ballpark because there was no support or care and not enough funding for protection.  From the days when the structure was a law enforcement and safety facility, money was not an issue to help keep up. But now that it is an art gallery and show house, fundings are sometimes low due to the fact that it is not as important or as praised as a safety station would be.

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