Final Revision Memo

When I decided to choose a theme, I was in trouble because there were too many choices. I finally picked a few topics that I was interested in, but I don’t know that this semester will complete a series of projects based on the theme I chose most. Secondly, the idea of your choice is more difficult. When searching for paper resources, there is less information available to choose from. Cloning this topic is too professional and academic.

When I looked at the resources, I found it difficult to read the articles. However, I only need to narrow down my theme, so it will be much simpler when writing material, such as focusing on the topic of cloning humans. When searching for the subject of human cloning, I will also search for clones of organs, as this will connect to my topic. As for the amount of information is too large, the content is too professional. I chose to use the directory to find the information I needed. The information is difficult to read. I read the material selectively to see the arguments and conclusions of the article. In general, I am not satisfied with the theme of the project I chose. Because I understand this project now, I will use different methods to complete this topic and use a more reasonable way to deal with the problem. In the process of completing this course, as a writer, I got some skills. In combination with the textbooks, I know how to look at the problem from the perspective of the reader, and present my point of view from the reader’s point of view, so that my arguments can be more understandable to the reader. Because I need to check a lot of information, I also understand how to find information more effectively.

Of course, I also understand how to choose the materials I read. Searching for different topics also requires the selection of professional academic articles, as such resources are more convincing to use. This subject is beneficial to me, not only in writing but also in finding and reading materials. For example, I know how to write a paper more rigorously, from format to citation. Then the richness of the content and the conciseness of the arguments. I think the more important part of this course is to make me a critical thinker.

Critical thinking is the ability to think clearly and rationally and understand the logical connection between ideas. Critical thinking can be described as the ability to participate in reflection and independent thinking. In essence, critical thinking requires you to use your reasoning skills. It is an active learner and not a passive recipient of information. Critical thinkers rigorously question ideas and assumptions rather than accept them on the surface. They always try to determine these ideas, whether the arguments and findings represent the whole situation, and are willing to discover that they are not. Critical thinkers will systematically identify, analyze, and solve problems, not through intuition or instinct.

Regarding my article, I found that the first draft and the final paper I modified many places. Sometimes it’s all about editing the content. After passing through the professor, I always found the problem in the article from his feedback. I also have uncertainty in the choice of theme. The topic of cloning is too broad, and I will not be able to choose between animal cloning and human cloning. When I select an issue, there will be problems in the choice of examples. The examples are not representative.

Regarding the choice of resources, this is also difficult, because their professionalism is not reliable, and they can only selectively access some easy-to-understand articles. The use of chart information makes my article more powerful. Because some of the histograms have been used for pie charts, the data in the examples are more explicit. Readers can easily understand what I want to say when I look at the table. The flow of cloning has been explained more intuitively using some flow charts. From the feedback of my classmates, I modified the chart. Mainly concerning layout, the structure is more comfortable to look at, and it is more convenient to read.

Based on the challenges I have encountered and the difficulties I have experienced, I suggest choosing the students of Professor Marx to do the following. First of all, make a good choice of the theme, do not easily pick because of your interest, but also consider the difficulty of the subject. Second, prepare for access to information and use academic articles as much as possible. Finally, please don’t forget to get feedback from the professor and it is essential to communicate your ideas to the professor on time.

Pre-writing Task

State your topic:

What is the position you are taking? (Don’t identify your topic; identify the opinion you plan to defend.)

The paper tries to show why cloning is essential in producing a new organism of the same genetics using the artificial and natural cloning process. The paper also supports the idea of human cloning to help parents who cannot naturally have children to have babies of with same genetics as the parent. Human cloning is also vital through therapeutic cloning that involves using stem cells to produce cells that are genetically identical to the patient that are later transplanted in the body to replace damaged cells.


Outline a number of major reasons that you take to support your position. List as many as possible without grasping at straws. Based on our reading and discussions about audience-based reasons and writer-based reasons, indicate which reasons you list are which.

Cloning is important as it uses cells and parts of an organism’s body to produce an organism of same genetics. Human cloning is important in repairing damaged cells such as spine through therapeutic cloning. Human cloning is thus essential for medicinal purposes to heal and replaced injured muscles. Human cloning helps parents who do not have the natural ability to deliver to have children that have their DNA thus eliminating childlessness.

Establishing and Maintaining Ethos and Pathos (review pp. 155-157 of TCR to revisit these concepts)

1. Write a paragraph where you acknowledge persons (you can be specific or hypothetical about these persons) who might resist your position. Think about what you can say to “reach out” to that unsympathetic audience. Can you acknowledge them and some of their major concerns? What could you say to win their trust or attention?

Various individuals could have a conclusion that human cloning is unethical. Religious and cultural values and beliefs can result in this. Moreover, babies born from cloning are in some cultures viewed as lab babies, such that they are different from the naturally born babies. However, human cloning is a process that produces helps parents have children who bear their DNA. Despite the children being developed in the lab, the fertilized embryo is transferred to a surrogate mother to fully form. Thus, cloning babies are similar to the naturally born babies. Human cloning is moreover ethical while used to help barren parents to sire children.


2.List several things you would avoid saying, for fear of alienating this audience. What would you avoid doing or saying to avoid alienating a more general audience?

I would avoid telling the audience that human cloning suffers lots of critics about making human life reduced to lab experiments where new life is developed in a scientific experiment. The mention of the scientific experiment in developing babies would make cloning seem as morally unethical.


3.Write a paragraph where you address disinterested and uninterested audiences (if these sound like the same thing to you, look up each term to see the difference!). What could you say to these audiences to demonstrate that the topic is important and that your position should matter to your audience?

For disinterested people, I would try to persuade them that cloning and human cloning is important an ethical if the moral considerations are undertaken. I would explain that human cloning follows various ethical considerations and does not reduce humans to experiment subjects but works to improve human lives.

For the people uninterested with human cloning, I would describe to them how the various procedures of human cloning are undertaken and their importance to humans. This will enable them to have a better understanding of cloning and appreciates the advantages it has to humans.


4.Think about aspects of your writing that might tend to weaken ethos. Is there anything about your style, word choice, approaches to argument, etc., that might undermine your credibility and trustworthiness as a writer?

The aspects that could affect the ethos of the study are word choice and the approaches in arguments. Some words affect the writer’s perception such as bearing children for gay and lesbian couples. The approach of the argument in proving human cloning as important and ethical could also invite different views and opinions.


Discussing and Addressing Objections

Try to come up with at least three significant challenges to key points you plan to make in your paper (or to the underlying reasoning that supports them. For each of them, outline the following:

1.Each how exactly the objection challenges your side.

The three significant challenges to the key point is should human cloning be supported, is human cloning ethical and its position in devaluing human life. The objections are a major concern to the main point as they paint a positive side of human cloning deeming it as unimportant and one that should be discouraged. The objections further weaken the argument about the importance of human cloning.

2.Explain why we need to take the objection seriously.

The objections should be taken seriously as could form a principal critic towards proving that human cloning should not be undertaken and is unethical. The objections further weaken the key subject and thesis statement.

3.Discuss how you think you can overcome the objection, or what would happen if you concede the objection.

To overcome the objections, I am going to explain the ethical considerations carried out in human cloning to show that it is ethical and instead of devaluing human life, it improves it. I will use facts that analyze the objections and shows that the main subject of discussion has a watertight argument.


There have been some paradoxes about cloning, for example, part for the whole and appeal to false authority. There have been some negative comments and opinions about cloning. It is precise because of one or several failed experiments that, for example, in animal cloning experiments, experimental animals are trying to survive and have significant physiological defects. Therefore, many scientists have determined that animal cloning is a failure. And with this negative news spread, more and more people believe that cloning technology is a considerable risk. There are now cloned animals on the market that appear as food products, and they are qualified after various tests and can be used like normal foods, but because of this paradox, people refuse to clone food. The false authority has also emerged because the success of the cloned sheep Dolly has led many to believe that the creator of Dolly is authoritative. This will inevitably lead to misleading and some mistakes. An accidental success and failure cannot have a decisive conclusion. Because of the misguided guidance of some film and television works and the media, cloning has become a shocking thing. Over time, people naturally form things that are not good as long as the cloning is done.



My inquiry question is “How much risk would be involved in a cloning a human being?” Concerning cloning, many questions deserve to be considered. The reason I chose this question is that the risk of cloning is worth pondering. This issue is controversial and somewhat complicated and cannot be clearly stated. For example, what are the risks of cloning and how dangerous are they? Can these risks be reduced or avoided? What is the most dangerous situation? These problems are all derived from the risk of cloning. It also shows that the problem is complicated enough and sufficiently discussed. Simply put, when cloning is at risk, it also brings good aspects to humans. For example, cloned organs. So what is the risk of cloning an organ, can it be used by patients? Is it dangerous to use? How long can we use? It is a good illustration of the risk of cloning is worth discussing, and it is very controversial, rather than merely answering. There are many answers to this question, and it is not possible to accurately define the correctness of the answer. So, I chose to use the risk of cloning as an inquiry question.


In my paper, there are some problems. The first one is that the inquiry question is not clear enough. The second one is that I wrote too many backgrounds when I introduced the theme. The third is that there is not enough debate to help me have more ideas or facts to oppose or support my topic. First of all, I can make my question clearer. The second is to delete some background introductions. Then, I can find some arguments to perfect my theme, it can be support or opposition, combined with the previous inquiry question so that my point of view will be more perfect. Finally, I also found that my paper has some problems in the format, I think I will follow the template to write. I think the VCU writing center can also help me, I will go there to seek their help. Because when I helped other students to view the paper, I found that she did not strictly follow the APA format when she quoted it. Then when I looked at my own paper, I also found that there were problems with the reference format in some places. I think I will change it via the VCU Writing Center web page the APA format requirements.