“States with large white populations also tend to incarcerate blacks at a high rate, controlling for race-specific arrest rates and demographic variables. (Pettit, Western, 2004) ”
“the poor are perceived as threatening to social order by criminal justice officials ((Pettit, Western, 2004).”
“the dominant classes use imprisonment as a means of political, economic, and social control over the “dangerous classes”: the unemployed, the poor, the homeless, the mentally ill, the political dissidents, and the racial, ethnic, and social “others” (Chang, Thompkins, 2002).
“Barlow (1996) found that when the economy stagnates, Congress passes more federal laws that add additional activities as criminal offenses, mandates more severe penalties, and demands more strict law enforcement. Jacobs and Helms (1996) documented that, compared to Democrats, Republican presidents since 1935 have established a record of campaigning on a “tough on crime” platform to attract lower- and working-class voters (Chang, Thompkins, 2002).”