### Topic 10: Sound and Light

Science

Light is electromagnetic radiation that has properties of waves

Light follows the Law of Reflection: “The angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection.” Light can bounce off materials in two ways: diffuse and regular reflection

Refraction allows light to bend/refract when it changes speed

Light travels faster in air, slow in water and slower still in glass

Waves have many properties, including frequency, wavelength, amplitude, timbre, and direction

A high frequency wave is one where there are a lot of vibrations per second

A low frequency wave is one where there are few vibrations per second

Sound is measures in decibels

What was the point of this activity?

The point of this was to allow students to see how light can be reflected and refracted from different angles of a mirror.

Explain how you would introduce this to your class?

I could start by reading a nonfiction book to them about sound and light so they can loosely get an idea of what we are going to talk about. Then i would have them write down questions they had about sound and light.

Where do you see a student having difficulty with this?

I think students could struggle lining up the mirrors correctly, depending on the age and accurately drawing what they see.

What changes or extensions could you do to this activity?

I could use larger mirrors so see if it made a difference in the outcome and i could also find animations to further help their understanding.

### Topic 9: Electricity and Magnetism

Science

Magnetism is a physical phenomenon produced by the motion of electric charge, resulting in attractive and repulsive forces between objects.

Like poles with repel and unlike (opposite) poles will attract.

What was the point of this activity?

The point of this activity was to show students how everyday items are magnets, even ones we would not suspect. It clears up misconceptions students may have regarding this topic.

Explain how you would introduce this to your class?

I would start this topic by asking what my students already knew about magnetism and start and open ended discussion about it. As a class, i would ask if they though certain items were magnetic or not.

Where do you see a student having difficulty with this?

I honestly do not see much difficulty with this lesson but if there had to be any, some may not understand why some of the items were in fact, magnetic.

What changes or extensions could you do to this activity?

I would give my students magnets and have them go around the school to see what magnetic items they could find.

### Topic 9: Electricity and Magnetism

Science

A circuit is a path between two or more points along which an electrical current can be carried

Electricity is not the flow of electrons, instead it’s the electrons and protons themselves. When electricity flows, it is called an electric current.

Voltage is an electrical potential difference, the difference in electric potential between two places

One volt equals one joule per coulomb.

A parallel circuit is a closed circuit in which the current divides into two or more paths before recombining to complete the circuit

A series circuit is a closed circuit in which the current follows one path

What was the point of this activity?

The point of this was to help students better understand circuits and see how all the elements work together to produce light.

Explain how you would introduce this to your class?

I would talk to my class about what makes a circuit. I could have them get in a circle and discuss open and closed circuits before i started my lesson.

Where do you see a student having difficulty with this?

I think it could be hard understanding why the lights are brighter with one circuit compared to the other. Or what happens when you unscrew one of the light bulbs in a series circuit.

What changes or extensions could you do to this activity?

I would have them play circuit freeze tag where they run around and as insulators and conductors and freeze if they are an open circuit and their friends would come by and lock hands with them to close the circuit so they can keep playing.

### Topic 8: Solar System

Science

The average distance between the Earth and the Sun is 149.60 million km

The earth takes 365 days to travel around the sun

The earth’s rotation/tilt position around the sun is the reason we have seasons

The Earth’s axis is tilted at an angle of 23.5 degrees

What was the point of this activity?

The point of this was to allow students to visually understand  why we have seasons and how the sun shines light on different parts of the earth during the year.

Explain how you would introduce this to your class?

I would ask my class why we have seasons and talk to them about the north and south hemispheres. I would try to find a game regarding this topic.

Where do you see a student having difficulty with this?

I think difficulty would occur when they have to figure out the sun exposure whether it is north, south, or equal.

What changes or extensions could you do to this activity?

I would extend this by doing a class wide representation of the solstices and the equinox. I would assign a person to be the sun and the other students would be the seasons and the class would have to say what season everyone was and then i would switch them. I would also try to find a Phet animation.

### Topic 8: Solar System

Science:

The moon orbits the Earth once every 27.32 days.

takes approximately 27 days for the moon to rotate once on its axis.

Thus, giving us our 8 moon phases

Depending on the time of day, we can see it rising, overhead, setting, or completely blocked from the view.

What was the point of this activity?

The point of this activity was to see how the moons rotation cause phase change and how it’s relationship with the sun affects all of that.

Explain how you would introduce this to your class?

I would explain this by first discussing the difference between rotation and revolution because sometimes students mix up the two. I would show them moon phases and ask them to guess what they were and how they knew. Then i would start the topic.

Where do you see a student having difficulty with this?

I could see difficulty happening with students mixing up waxing and waning and crescent and gibbous moons. I can see them also being confused on seeing a visual of a moon and having to determine whether it is setting, rising, and so on in relation to the position of the sun.

What changes or extensions could you do to this activity?

I would create a chart with the phases on it so they can see it as a visual. i would also look for a video that shows the rotation of the moon fast forwarded through the month so they can witness it moving.

### Topic 6: Simple Machines Activity

Science

A simple machine is any of the basic mechanical devices for applying a force.

The simple machines are pulleys, wedges, levers, wheel and axle, and screws.

What was the point of this activity?

The point of this activity was to introduce simple machines to children  and let them know they are seen in our every day lives.

Explain how you would introduce this to your class?

I would introduce this to my class by having them do the activity first. I would give them legos and put them into groups and have them make something without instruction. From there, i would point out that they have added simple machines without even realizing.

Where do you see a student having difficulty with this?

I think there might be a little difficulty trying to put the assigned simple machine together but i think working in groups would make this easier.

What changes or extensions could you do to this activity?

I would put multiple simple machine parts in the lego boxes and allow them to create what they want. I think it is important to be creative and let them use their hands to learn.

### Topic 6: Hotwheels

Science:

Energy is the capacity to do work

Kinetic energy  of an object is the energy that it possesses due to its motion. It is defined as the work needed to accelerate a body of a given mass from rest to its stated velocity.

Potential energy is the energy that is stored in an object due to its position relative to some zero position.

What was the point of this activity?

The point of this activity was to help students understand potential and kinetic energy and how motion plays a part in all of that.

Explain how you would introduce this to your class?

I would introduce this to my class asking what they observe about the race track and what this would have to do pertaining  to science. Then ask what they knew about potential and kinetic energy.

Where do you see a student having difficulty with this?

I could see students struggle with measuring the height accurately. They may bend the two sides which can skew results.

What changes or extensions could you do to this activity?

I would add more sides to the to see if it affects how the car goes through the loop. I would then ask them how that would affect the potential and kinetic energy.

### Topic 5: Egg in Vinegar

Science:

Acetic acid is an organic chemical compound. It usually known for giving vinegar its sour smell.

It is one of the simplest carboxylic acids and has the chemical formula CH3COOH.

The acetic acid reacts with the calcium carbonate in the egg shell and releases carbon dioxide gas that you see as bubbles on the shell.

A chemical reaction is a process that involves rearrangement of the molecular or ionic structure of a substance, as opposed to a change in physical form or a nuclear reaction.

What was the point of this activity?

The point of this activity was to show what happens when an egg is soaked in vinegar and why its’ shell is dissolved.

Explain how you would introduce this to your class?

I would introduce this to my class by giving them background information on acetic acid and what it does. I would ask for predictions as to what they think would happen.

Where do you see a student having difficulty with this?

I think difficulty could stem from some students may not fullyunderstand why the shell would dissolve or why the chemicals react the way they do.

What changes or extensions could you do to this activity?

I would want to put a videocam the egg so we can see it at all times and really see the process of it dissolving so students can have a  better understanding.

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### Topic 5: Building Molecules in a Chemical Reaction

Science

molecule is the smallest particle in a chemical element or compound that has the chemical properties of that element or compound.

Molecules are made up of atoms that are held together by chemical bonds. These bonds form as a result of the sharing or exchange of electrons among atoms.

compound is a substance formed when two or more chemical elements are chemically bonded together.

Two common types are covalent bonds and ionic bonds.

What was the point of this activity?

The point of this activity was to allow students to see a visual about how molecules are made up. Children can see how they connect to each other. We see things like H2O as a liquid to the natural eye but this allows students to see how it is really made up.

How would you introduce this to your class?

I would start by asking them to draw what they think molecules looks like and then i would then see if they have a virtual activity. I would also ask what they already know about elements.

Where do you see a student having difficulty with this?

I could see students having trouble coordinating the right color with the name. It was confusing to me and i found myself messing them up sometimes. I could also see them getting confused on where to add the elements.

What changes or extensions could you do to this activity?

I would try to find a way to make it easier to understand the colors. Or finding an online representation of molecules that goes into further detail.

### Topic 4: Playing with Air Pressure

Science

Air pressure is the force exerted onto a surface by the weight of the air.

Pressure of the weight of the air pushing on us every moment of every day. The only reason we don’t get crushed is that our bodies push back at the air with the same pressure.

The highest pressure is at sea level where the density of the air molecules is the greatest.

Air pressure decreases as we move upward

What was the point of this activity?

The purpose of this activity was to see how air pressure impacts certain things

Explain how you would introduce this to your class?

I would introduce this to my class by asking my students what they already knew about air pressure and how we can find it in our everyday lives. I could also show them the demonstration of air pressure on pHet. I will make sure I define things very well so they can better visualize it.

Where do you see a student having difficulty with this?

Difficulty in this activity could stem from students not understanding why it is harder to pull their hand out when the hole is covered. Also, it may be difficult understanding molecules being pressurized since it is something they cannot visually see.

What changes or extensions could you do to this activity?

I could extend this activity by using smaller gloves for students with smaller hands or clear gloves so they can see what their hand is doing inside the jar.