Category Archives: science

Discrepant Event

Discrepant events are a perfect way to get the students attention at the beginning of a lesson. Discrepant events help student learn the material because they should be interest sparkers and create questions that the student is interested in finding the answer to through out the lesson. this lesson is great because it shows students how a chemical reaction occurs.


Discrepant Event Demonstration

What’s a Chemical Reaction?

Teacher Handout


Materials list:



Baking soda

Empty water bottle




Directions with safety considerations:

  1. Blow the balloon up a little bit to stretch it out.
  2. Put protective eye wear one.
  3. Make one balloon with two teaspoons of baking soda in it using the funnel.
  4. Now get the empty water bottle and fill it half way up with vinegar.
  5. Put the balloon over the bottle, but do not let any baking soda get in the bottle yet.
  6. Ask the students what they think will happen when the baking soda goes into the plastic bottle. Also ask why?
  7. Now take the baking soda and pour it into the bottle. Watch the results.
  8. Ask the students why they think this reaction occurred.
  9. Now tell the students why it occurred.

-The reaction that we just saw was a chemical reaction. When you mix baking soda that contains sodium bicarbonate which is a base when mixed with vinegar which is an acetic acid they react with each other. The gas that is created when this happens is carbon dioxide (CO2) which is why we saw all the little bubbles forming in the bottle. The balloon fills up because as the chemical reaction occurs the gas needs to escape from the bottle. Since we have the balloon wrapped around the top the air fills into the balloon; blowing it up! We create CO2 when we breath as well.


Description of the use in an elementary classroom:

This activity can be used in a fifth-grade classroom to discuss mixtures and solutions. Students are given a hands on opportunity to mix two elements and visibly see the outcome. I also think that is interesting to them that we create Co2 when we breath as does this experiment.

5.4 The student will investigate and understand that matter is anything that has mass and takes up space; and occurs as a solid, liquid, or gas. Key concepts include

  1. e)  mixtures including solutions.


Resource Citation:




Student Hand out:


What’s a Chemical Reaction?


Answer the following questions and draw pictures when necessary:

 Make a prediction on what you think will happen when we combined baking soda with vinegar:

 Why do you think this will happen?

 Draw a picture of the result after the experiment is complete:


The reaction that we just saw was a chemical reaction.  This reaction is caused when you mix baking soda which has sodium bicarbonate with vinegar which is acetic acidic you get the bubbling reaction of CO2 being created as the solution  Does carbon dioxide sound familiar? Well it is what we as human’s breath out every day. As with our lungs we cannot just keep the carbon dioxide in ourselves. So, we breath it out just as with the bottle with the mixture had to release its CO2 and filled up the balloon.


Science lesson plan Plant cell

This activity is great to get students out of their seats and talking about that parts of a plant cell through quiz, quiz, trade. This activity also shows an interactive video for the students to watch and see the inside of a plant cell at work. Showing the video will help the student better understand what the inner workings of a plant look like and the functions of a plant cell. after the students get to fell out a crossword puzzle to apply the knowledge they learned in the lesson.

Link to crossword-

PlantandAnimalCellsVocabularyCrosswordPuzzleFreebie copy

Purpose: The students will be learning difference and similarities between the animal and plant cell structures as well as introducing the topic of photosynthesis.

SOL: living systems

5.5 The student will investigate and understand that organisms are made of one or more cells and have distinguishing characteristics that play a vital role in the organism’s ability to survive and thrive in its environment. Key concepts include

a)  basic cell structures and functions;

b)  classification of organisms using physical characteristics, body structures, and behavior of the organism; and

c)  traits of organisms that allow them to survive in their environment.

NSTA standard- PS3. D

-The energy released [from] food was once energy from the sun that was captured by plants in the chemical process that forms plant matter (from air and water).


  • TSWBAT tell the differences between animal and plant cells. They will also be able to differentiate and identify parts of a plant and animal cell as well as its functions with 94 percent accuracy missing 2 of the crossword questions.


  • Say “What makes up all living things?
  • Look for answer Cells?”
  •  Ask “Do you know how big or small cells are? What can we use to see a cell?”
  • Look for answers “tiny, very small and microscope.”
  •  Say “Today, we will be learning about plant cells, which are what make up the inside of a plant. Also, we will talk about what parts of the plant and animal cells are alike.”
  • Tell them that we will be watching short film that will show us what the inside of a plant cell looks like and what the parts of the cells do.
  • Tell them “We will also be talking about photosynthesis which happens in plant cells and not animal cells. It takes place within the chloroplast which allows the plant to make its own food from sunlight.”
  • This is a new topic for them so we will explain it and have students write down the new definition.
  • Turn on film you tube:  (Virtual Plant Cell: Cell Explore. VPC 360° by Plant Energy Biology.  (V,A)

stop at 3:15

***Use the video to get students engaged this will get them to wonder more about the plant cell now that we have gotten a closer look at how the parts of the cell work together.


·      Ask the students to recite some of the things that they remember being in a plant call or recall facts from the film.

·      look for these answers.


Chloroplast – An organelle in a plant cell that makes food from sunlight, water and carbon dioxide.

Cell wall – Holds the cells structure together.

Cell membrane- This is in both the plant and animal cell and it controls what goes in and out of the cell.

Mitochondria- This is the cell energy processor- it helps supply energy to the cell.

Nucleolus- This is in both plant and animal cells. It is the part of the cell that directs all cell Activates.

Vacuoles- Both plant and animal cells, it is the part of the plant that stores food and water

Cytoplasm- Jelly- like substance that fills the cell.

Photosynthesis- The process that takes place inside a plant to allow plants to make its own food.

Plant cell- This type of cell is surrounded by a thick, rigid, cell wall and is rectangular in shape.

Animal cell- This cell does not have chloroplast and is circular in shape.

Microscope- The instrument used to see a cell.

Cell- Basic unit of life.


·      Ask what each part of the cell does?

Ask the students what they remember about the definitions of these words to extend/ elaborate their prior knowledge on the topic and see what they know.

  • Tell students we will be playing Quiz, Quiz, Trade. (K)
  •  I am using Quiz, Quiz, Trade to get students thinking and exploring new ideas and talk through ideas with each other.
  • Give each student a card.
  • Tell them that they will be reading the part in blue to their partner, and the partner has to guess the word in in red. Tell the students to not read the red part to the partner.
  • Tell students to trade cards after they have finished and put new card in the air to find a new partner.
  • Student will play this game for 5 to 10 minutes.
  • After the game is over we will do a crossword puzzle for students to fill out and see what they recall from the lesson and game.
  • You will have the answer key to check student work.
  •  After all students are done collect papers.
  •   Grade papers based on the answers that they fill into the boxes.
  • For students that are struggling help by reviewing the parts of a plant cell or speeling words if they are unsure of how to spell it. Students that are doing well can draw pictures of the animal cell and the plant cell as well as wright functions on picture.


  • When all the students are done with the cross word that you will be walking around checking as they go you will close the lesson.
  • Say “Today we got to see the inside of a plant cell and learn the functions of each part of the cell and how photosynthesis is how plants use chloroplast to make their own food. Which is a major difference between people and plants as we cannot make our own food”.
  • Materials- crossword puzzle and answer key from
  • Cards for quiz, quiz, trade
  • *Safety is not an issue for this lesson.
Evaluation Part A:

How will you assess the students’ knowledge of the new skills taught?

·      After the movie and activity, I will have gotten more on what the students know based on the answers that they are giving throughout the activity while walking around listening to their answers. I will keep a tally on students that need some more reinforcement. As well as asking the students questions about the parts of the cells after the game. I will know that the students understand based on the answers they give for the crossword puzzle which will be graded. Refer to the filled-out answer sheet for grading on crossword puzzle if all are filled out it is 100% for everyone missed take off 3 points.

Evaluation Part B:  (after the lesson has been taught)

·       Did the students meet your objectives?

·       How do you know?

·       Did your lesson accommodate/address the needs of all your learners?

·       What were the strengths of the lesson?

·       What were the weaknesses?

·       How would you change the lesson if you could teach it again?