Topic 1: Mass and Size
Science: Measuring an object is very important in all of science, it can help you find volume and density. It will also be able to help you go places and locate objects.
Point of Activity: To review measuring with a ruler and the metric system, and to compare the metric and standard system
Introduce to Class : Start by exploring the ruler, and what everything on it means, then talk about similar sizes, such as yards to meter using a football field
Difficulty : Measuring the objects accurately, knowing what unit to measure with (cm, mm, m, etc)
Changes or Extensions : Make predictions before measuring. With lower grades, change our rulers for objects (measure with a book or your hand)
Science: To find volume of an object, you measure the height, width, and depth of an object. The volume is how much space the object takes up . Another way to measure volume is by measuring water displacement
Point- To practice measuring volume.
Introduce- Ask how we measure volume, do some practices with the students before they do it on their own.
Difficulty- Correctly measuring, remembering how to solve for the volume.
Changes or Extensions- give them different objects to take the volume of.
Topic 2: Properties of Matter
Straw in Water
Science: The air stuck in the straw when i have my finger over the top is displacing the water in the container, making the water rise. If the water is in the straw and then i put my finger over the top, the water would stay in the straw as it is lifted out
Point- To explain how water is displaced, and show the difference between water and gasses
Introduce- Is air real? and how do they know> Ask for their predictions on stray activity
Difficulty- Plugging and holding the straw, explain why the water is displaced and knowing that in the big container there is a change in the level of water
Changes or Extensions- Add color, use play-dough to plug the hole have more than 1 straw to show a bigger difference
Sink / Float
Science: Density is constant in water (1 g/cm3) if the density of an object is less than water, it will float in the water, is the density of the object (regardless of size) is more dense than water, it will sink.
Point- To compare densities of different objects in 2 different ways, sink/float and comparing masses
Introduce- Have the class make predictions if the objects will sink or float, ask why they gave their predictions
Difficulty- Knowing which to predict, accurately measuring the mass of the objects, knowing what object is what
Changes or Extensions- Chose their own objects around the classroom, give older grades their own water to test in, label the cylinders
Topic 4: Properties of Matter
Where Does the Water Go?
Science: The potato has a higher water concentration than the outside area. With the potato, when salt was put on a freshly cut potato, within minutes there was water sitting on top that was extracted from the potato.
Point- To demonstrate how water can come out of, or be absorbed by different substances.
Introduce- Ask to make predictions on the experiments, and if the students have worked with potatoes.
Difficulty- Understanding why the salt draws water out. Being patient enough to wait until there is something to observe.
Changes or Extensions- Puree potatoes, shows how much water they hold. Have the students squish the pureed potato and see how much water comes out
Science: As the glove is pulled out, with the hole open, the air pressure in the container remains the same. If I plug the hole and pull the glove out, there is more space in the container, but no more air to take the space, so the container has less air pressure.
Point- To demonstrate air pressure and how air exists
Introduce- Talk about how air is all around us, ask students how they know air is there (wind resistance)
Difficulty- Feeling the difference in air pressure in the container
Changes and Extensions- provide a plug for the hole, giving each child their own set up
Topic 5: Chemical Reactions
Chemical Reactions with Vinegar and Baking Soda
Science: Bicarbonate and Acetic acid is mixed together to create acetate, water and carbon dioxide.
Point- To demonstrate chemical reactions and how a chemical reaction has a limit
Introduce- Ask students have the seen a volcano reaction
Difficulty- Not constantly stirring, seeing small reaction near the end of the experiment
Changes or Extensions- More materials (bigger reactions) , add food coloring
Science: pH measures the amount of Hydrogen in a solution. The scale is from 1 to 14. a pH of 1-6 is acidic, it has less hydrogen, 7 is neutral, and 8-14 is basic, it has more Hydrogen.
Point- To test the pH of substances as it changes from acidic to basic, and practice using litmus paper.
Introduce- Test different types of acids and bases, talk about the differences in an acid and base.
Difficulty- Telling the difference in colors, knowing which color is acid vs base.
Changes or Extensions- Having more substances, talk about how the government cleans up oils spills on the street, by neutralizing the spill.
Topic 6: Energy, Motion and Forces
Science: The car was let go at a measured height, and went back on the other side to almost the same height. The car right before it was let go had 100% potential energy. As it is let go, the car’s energy starts converting to kinetic energy, and has 100% kinetic energy at the bottom. The car starts to go back up the other side of the track, converting the energy back from kinetic to potential. The car gets almost back to the same height it was let go at, but is a little short since some of the car’s energy was lost to friction.
Point- To demonstrate the relationship between potential and kinetic energy and work on graphing
Introduce- Drop objects, talk about kinetic, potential, and thermal energy. Talk about resistance, do the skateboarder phet.
Difficulty- Building the track. measuring correctly, and creating the best fit line.
Changes or Extensions- Have a platform rather than the loop. Compare different size cars on an identical track next to each other.
Science: Simple machines are used in every day life to make tasks that require work to be easier. For example, an inclined plane helps spread out how much work is required at one given time. Someone moving a heavy box to a truck, the work is split over the entire inclined plane rather than all at once to get the box to the truck.
Point- To explore simple machines and their uses in the real world.
Introduce- Have the students tell you simple machines that are used in every day life, and how they help people do their jobs.
Difficulty- Creating the Lego levers, measuring the distance of the pulley ropes.
Changes or Extensions- On the pulley, decrease the weight and length of the rope (smaller scale), use a crow bar, lever, or something similar to pull something like a nail out.
Topic 7: Solar System
Phases of the moon
Science: As the moon moves around the earth, the light from the sun gets blocked by the earth so part of the moon is dark, causing the 4 moon phases.
Point- To demonstrate the moon phases and what causes some of it to be dark vs light.
Introduce- Have the students look out and see if they can see the moon, talk about if they can see it in the day sometimes. Ask the students why they can only see part of the moon at times, and the whole thing at other times.
Difficulty- Keeping waning and waxing straight in their head.
Changes or Extensions- have the students track the moon for the entire day, then once a day when they see it for 2 weeks. Use those to talk about the different phases
Science: The tilt of the earth as it rotates around the sun creates different seasons around the world. The northern and southern hemispheres are on opposite seasons. If the tilt of the earth is facing the sun more, then it is summer, and when it is further, it is winter time.
Point- To understand why there are different seasons caused by the sun.
Introduce- Asking the students why we have seasons.
Difficulty- Understanding where the sun shines. Holding the constant tilt.
Changes or Extensions- Use a real globe, do it as a class.
Topic 8: Electricity and Magnetism
Science: Using a magnet, we were able to see what objects were magnetic and not. We then were able to see and similar properties that the magnetic and non-magnetic items had.
Point- To compare what is magnetic and non-magnetic. To demonstrate the properties of a magnet.
Introduce- Having the students predict what items are magnetic or non-magnetic. Talk about what a magnet is and how they are used.
Difficulty- Understanding how the magnetic field works. Remembering that magnetic south is earth’s north.
Changes and Extensions- Adding more objects, bringing in a stronger magnet
Electromagnet and Loudspeaker
Science: Wrapping a copper wire around an iron nail creates an electromagnet. The copper wire connected to a battery pushes electrons around the wire and through the nail, making it an electromagnet. The more wrappings around the wire, the more magnetic the nail is.
Point- To demonstrate how circuits and electromagnets work, and how the magnet is stronger when there are more wrappings of the wire on the nail.
Introduce- Talk about if a nail is magnetic on its own, and have the students predict how many paper clips the magnet will be able to pick up
Difficulty- having the wire wrapped tightly enough, picking up the paperclips
Changes or Extensions- Create different types of electromagnets (electromagnet train)
Topic 9: Sound and Light
Concave, Convex, and Planer Lenses
Science: The clear lenses were placed in front a beam of light. On a convex lens, the light hits the lens and refracts toward the center of the lens, and brings all of the light to a point.
Point- to show students how light refracts through different lens shapes
Introduce- Go over the difference between concave and convex lenses. Talk about refraction with things they would know such as a straw in a cup or a pool toy in a pool.
Difficulty- Marking where the light goes on the paper. Drawing straight lines
Changes or Extensions- Use colored beams of light to see how each one moves, and if they blend at all.
Concave, Convex, and Planer Mirror
Science: Beams of light reflect off of the mirror and move based on the way the mirror. For example, a convex mirror, a mirror bent out, will have 3 beams of light come in straight, then as they hit the mirror they will reflect out out, away from the mirror.
Point: To show students how light moves with reflection on concave, convex and planer mirrors
Introduce: Table about the difference in concave and convex mirrors
Difficulty: Marking the points of light, drawing the right lines.
Changes, do the same thing with 5 beams, or colored beams. Talk about uses for the mirrors in every day life. Show how the mirrors work (flipped or magnifying)