Research Nugget #6

Kross, E. (2013, August 14). Facebook Use Predicts Declines in Subjective Well-Being in Young Adults. PLOS ONE:. Retrieved July 27, 2014, from http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0069841

Link to Article

In this article Kross studies the effects that Facebook has over young adults over time. He focuses on two components of subjective well-being: how people feel moment to moment and how satisfied they are with their lives. Kross texted a group of Facebook users five times a day for two weeks to examine how Facebook use influences their lives. Their result indicated that Facebook use shows a negative shift on both case variables therefore proving that Facebook undermines personal well being.

“The human need for social connection is well established, as are the benefits that people derive from such connections [30][34]. On the surface, Facebook provides an invaluable resource for fulfilling such needs by allowing people to instantly connect. Rather than enhancing well-being, as frequent interactions with supportive “offline” social networks powerfully do, the current findings demonstrate that interacting with Facebook may predict the opposite result for young adults—it may undermine it.”

“Second, what mechanisms underlie the deleterious effects of Facebook usage on well-being? Some researchers have speculated that online social networking may interfere with physical activity, which has cognitive and emotional replenishing effects [27] or trigger damaging social comparisons”

In these two nuggets Kross tries to deduct a reasoning for why the results showed a decline in the subjects well being. One conclusion he dabbled with was dealing around physical activity. Since it has been proven that physical activity relieves stress and promotes a healthy mind and body Kross feels like there could be a connection between spending too much time on Facebook and not getting enough physical activity therefore leading to a decline of mental health.

BETA DRAFT

http://theinquiryproject.weebly.com/

I have a few questions regarding the final project…

Is there a minimum amount of articles we need to link?

Do we have to APA site all the articles that we used at the bottom of the post?

Is there a minimum amount of words that we are supposed to have?

 

Obviously this is just a draft, I still have more that I need to add in and change about my website but I was just wondering for the future so I do not forget to add anything.

Working on my voice…

“A main disagreement that I have seen while researching my topic, would be more or less considered the blame game. There are a lot of different opinions out there about who is responsible for cyber bullying, internet harassment, and cat-fishing that have created an outcome of different mental illnesses that could even result into suicide. Obviously these are big problems that need to be addressed   but I have not really found a common theme about whether it is the users fault, the websites fault, or the supervisors fault. It seems like everyone has information and facts that support what they believe is right. This makes it a little hard sometimes to establish black and white fact from stretched opinions.”

For right now, this is the voice that seems to come most naturally to me. Some questions I have are..

Is it okay if I use first person?

I will try to incorporate specific articles and quotes on my beta draft as well as acknowledge them correctly so beside the absence is it okay if my voice is relaxed like this paragraph? or should I try to stray away from slang or phrases?

Weebly is my host

I think I will house my inquiry project on a weebly site. I have a couple of friends who host blogs there and they have claimed it is easy to work around. It gives me options to customize the layout as well as tips and tricks to make my blog more eye catching.

I have not fully published it yet but I shall post the link soon!

Partial Draft

From my research about social media and mental health:

Many articles that I have read claim that social media does not have a direct effect on mental health. Social media websites like Facebook, Instagram, or Twitter may provide as an enhancer to already preexisting characteristics or mental health disorders that eventually could create a bigger problem. Many researchers believe a contributing factor to these mental illness problems (such as depression, social anxiety, and addiction) is the misuse of these websites by younger adolescence who are not fully mature enough to acknowledge consequences. Many also believe that it is the user who determines what they get out of these social media websites.  Since technically there isn’t any successful way to tell if a user is “mature enough” to handle themselves on these websites many will argue that it is the websites fault for having poor control over who accesses the website and it is up to the website to monitor what is put out there.

From what I found here is a list of different mental illnesses and potential arguments I have read about them.

Anxiety:  A common argument would be that social media causes social anxiety. People get so used to talking online to others that they loose the ability to communicate face-to-face. A counter argument to that would be that social media provides a forum for people who already have social anxiety to help build confidence and talk to others who deal with the same thing.

Mood Disorders: Some might say that social media causes mood disorders. People can get so consumed by what is going on with the internet that when they are not on it they show signs of hostility or sadness.

Eating Disorders: People have argued that social media promotes the wrong body image that ends up causing eating disorders in young adolescence. Another example would be that cyber bullying on social media websites have gotten so bad that the victims develop eating disorders.

Impulse Control/ Addiction Disorders: There are a lot of cases revolving around social media addictions and how it is extremely easy to be consumed.  A counter argument would be that a person can become addicted to anything and has a choice of moderation but something in them latches on to an action.

Personality Disorder: The new term cat-fishing comes from personality disorders and becoming obsession with having the ability to be whoever they want to be on the internet. They have a way of creating pages and accounts on social media websites that enables them to interact with the public.

Depression: A common argument revolves around the fact that sites like Facebook, Twitter and Instagram create a false sense of whats popular and might cause others to feel depressed when they see others doing “cooler” and “better” things then them.

A main disagreement that I have seen while researching my topic, would be more or less considered the blame game. There are a lot of different opinions out there about who is responsible for cyber bullying, internet harassment, and cat-fishing that have created an outcome of different mental illnesses that could even result into suicide. Obviously these are big problems that need to be addressed   but I have not really found a common theme about whether it is the users fault, the websites fault, or the supervisors fault. It seems like everyone has information and facts that support what they believe is right. This makes it a little hard sometimes to establish black and white fact from stretched opinions.

Personal:

I claim that social media websites do not create mental illnesses

because users have a choice what they put out on the internet or how they react to content posted.

because maturity can determine how content is absorbed

because mental illness is subjective

because mental illness’s differ from person to person

 

 

 

Research Nugget #6 “Personal Dynamic Media”

Personal Dynamic Media, Alan Kay and Adele Goldberg, Computer 10(3):31–41. March 1977

Link to Article

In this article Kay and Goldberg talked about how computers were viewed in the 1970’s and how those expectations could be collapsed with an expanded customer outlook. Instead of the intended user such as scientists and engineers using the computer as a sort of storage system, computers could actually be transformed into a number of different uses for more of the public. Kay and Goldberg envisioned that small computers could not only replace paper and pencil but also used for other hobbies such as music composition, graphic design and even animation. This could be helpful to a number of professions as well as children. This article promotes the use of individual small computers for every day needs.

I think that technology now is even greater than what Kay and Goldberg envisioned. There is an infinite number of uses for the individual computer that is constantly growing each day. Being potable and small makes it easy to take everywhere and provides more opportunities to use.

““Devices” which variously store, retrieve, or manipulate
information in the form of messages embedded in a medium
have been in existence for thousands of years. People use
them to communicate ideas and feelings both to others and
back to themselves. Although thinking goes on in one’s head,
external media serve to materialize thoughts and, through
feedback, to augment the actual paths the thinking follows.
Methods discovered in one medium provide metaphors which
contribute new ways to think about notions in other media.”

In this nugget Kay and Goldberg talk about how external media can take thoughts and ideas that someone may think and use a machine to produce a product of ones thoughts. By doing this, it also can make it easier for others to provide feedback or challenge thinkers.

This nugget reminds me of a previous nugget that I have written about. Which was…

“But today, at this moment,  we can and must design the media, design the molecules of our new water, and I believe that the details of this design matter very deeply. They will be with us for a very long time, perhaps as long as man has left; perhaps if they are as good as they can be, man may even buy more time – or the open-ended future most suppose remains.” 

This is from Ted Nelson’s Computer Lib/Dream Machines article. He was talking about how it is important to design the media because it is what surrounds our world now. I think this relates to what Kay and Goldberg were trying to establish. The media has such an impact that establishes metaphors outside of media as well as shapes what we see and research each day in the media. Maybe the technology has exceeded what Kay and Goldberg originally thought but they had the right idea and predicted how our present day media would be viewed.

Concept Experience #6

 

  • It has been shown through that feelings displayed on Facebook are contagious. If you see more positive posts than negative posts, then you start posting more positive posts as well.

In this example there was poor use of hyperlinks. The first link (“research”) does not directly link to the research article and the second link (“contagious”) was not needed since it did not have anything to do with the initial topic. There could have been a better explanation leading up to the article that was linked with the word research so it could help the reader understand more about why that link was specifically chosen.

  • There have been studies done on Facebook and all the emotions related to posts. “We have enough power in this data set to show that emotional expressions spread online and also that positive expressions spread more than negative.”

The first hyperlink (“Facebook”) did not need to be there because it had nothing to do with the research. People already know what Facebook is, the more helpful and enticing link should be towards the actual study. The second hyperlink (“positive expressions”) also does not correlate with what the post is talking about but rather deviates from the topic which could sidetrack the reader. Also there is a quote that does not have any acknowledgement  giving credit to whoever stated it which could be considered plagiarism. The quote is poorly placed and needs a better explanation.

  • Researchers in a new study have found that feelings displayed on Facebook are contagious. They found enough data to show that “emotional expressions spread online and also that positive expressions spread more than negative.”

This post could use more information regarding the study. It does a good job incorporating a quote but does not give credit to the source that it was taken from. The hyperlink could have been linked to a more official article regarding the study. 

  • In a new study, researchers from University of California, San Diego have found that feelings displayed on Facebook are contagious. Publishing a paper in the journal PLOS ONE, the team analyzed over a billion anonymous status updates from more than 100 million Facebook subscribers across the United States and found that positive posts beget positive posts and negative posts beget negative posts. They said that while both are common on the site, the positive posts are more influential. They concluded, “We have enough power in this data set to show that emotional expressions spread online and also that positive expressions spread more than negative.”

This article provides a correct hyperlink to the scholarly article relating to the study. The study is properly explained to help the reader understand enough information to continue on reading and fully understanding but keep enough held back to make the reader want to click the link. The second hyperlink also provides more information as well as help acknowledge the source that was quoted.

I think the main difference between #3 and #4 was that #4 linked a more credible source that contained the real study done as well as another scholarly article. Another positive that #4 did was that they explained the articles they linked as well as provided true acknowledgment towards the quotations used.

 

 

 

Concept Experience #5

facebookimagesFacebook tinkered with users’ feeds for a massive psychology experiment

By William Hughes

Jun 27, 2014 3:30 PM

Scientists at Facebook have published a paper showing that they manipulated the content seen by more than 600,000 users in an attempt to determine whether this would affect their emotional state. The paper, “Experimental evidence of massive-scale emotional contagion through social networks,” was published in The Proceedings Of The National Academy Of Sciences. It shows how Facebook data scientists tweaked the algorithm that determines which posts appear on users’ news feeds—specifically, researchers skewed the number of positive or negative terms seen by randomly selected users. Facebook then analyzed the future postings of those users over the course of a week to see if people responded with increased positivity or negativity of their own, thus answering the question of whether emotional states can be transmitted across a social network. Result: They can! Which is great news for Facebook data scientists hoping to prove a point about modern psychology. It’s less great for the people having their emotions secretly manipulated.

In order to sign up for Facebook, users must click a box saying they agree to the Facebook Data Use Policy, giving the company the right to access and use the information posted on the site. The policy lists a variety of potential uses for your data, most of them related to advertising, but there’s also a bit about “internal operations, including troubleshooting, data analysis, testing, research and service improvement.” In the study, the authors point out that they stayed within the data policy’s liberal constraints by using machine analysis to pick out positive and negative posts, meaning no user data containing personal information was actually viewed by human researchers. And there was no need to ask study “participants” for consent, as they’d already given it by agreeing to Facebook’s terms of service in the first place.

Facebook data scientist Adam Kramer is listed as the study’s lead author. In an interview the company released a few years ago, Kramer is quoted as saying he joined Facebook because “Facebook data constitutes the largest field study in the history of the world.” It’s a charming reminder that Facebook isn’t just the place you go to see pictures of your friends’ kids or your racist uncle’s latest rant against the government—it’s also an exciting research lab, with all of us as potential test subjects.

facebook2unnamed

Part Two:

The words that I choose to add hyperlinks to were mostly trigger words. Words or phrases that instantly made me think or question what the author is saying. I tried to add media that seemed lighter on the outside but really drove home a message that originally would enforce what the author is saying.

The videos I felt like added another layer to just black and white text. This subject should not be taken lightly so I put visual emotion in the hyperlinks to really express the feeling one might get.

I incorporated the video in a way to invoke the readers curiosity. I didn’t want to flat out say “hey here is a video!” but push the reader to find out more. I wanted the reader to feel like they needed to explore since the topic of the article was revolving around the viewer being in the dark about information.

I enjoyed finding things and linking them into this article. I think it is a great way to drive home a message, if done correctly. The hyperlinks need to be relevant to what is being said in the text and also provide enough interest to keep the viewers clinking on other hyperlinks.

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