Hello! I am Aausi, sadly I am almost a sophomore now and in three short years my wonderful college life is going to end. I had the privilege of being a student of Dr.Vikki Pallo for my Univ 111/112. Under her guidance and instructions my writing/research has definitely improved a lot. I have discovered new writing techniques that I work well with, gotten better at siting my sources in MLA format, my research skills have definitely improved, I am more aware of what kind of articles I should use where should I look for them, their length and how to check whether it is a good research article or not. I still have a lot of room for improvement when it comes to flow of information in each paragraph and proper MLA formatting, however this class has helped me overcome the fear of writing and research. This class has also helped me enhance my presentation skills. After doing both group and individual presentation I have become aware of my strengths and weaknesses and have learnt different ways to overcome them.

My portfolio includes three writing from my Univ111 class and three writings from my Univ 112 class. There three pieces that i chose from my Univ 111 class are; Unit 1,2 and 3 essays. Unit I essay we wrote about a personal experience. We concentrated in detailed information, what we learnt from the experience and how this ties in to the real world. Through this essay we were able to project and explain our ideas and a personal experience to the readers. Unit 2 essay was about an issue that bothered us. We had do a lot of research on this paper about our topic. It further developed my understanding on rhetorical analysis, written communication as we had to reflect and project our idea on a contemporary issue. Unit 3 essay was a research about an ethical dilemma, we found two articles that somewhat overlapped each other views, evaluate the credibility of each source, and evaluate each article. Wiring this essay and this unit enhanced my skills like evaluating sources and their credibility.

The areas I have grown the most is research and writing a paper with keeping the audience in mind. I have learned the most on how to inform the audience about a certain topic and what kind of research is needed to back up the information I have provided in my paper. The three pisces that I chose for my portfolio are feedback on Group Presentation(DWP), Annotated bibliography and Unit 3 essay. I chose the group presentation feedback because that was one of the major project of Unit 1, our project reflected on our winter reading Radioactive. This project helped develop my presentation skills also working in groups collaborating different ideas into one presentation was a great learning experience for me. The second piece I used is annotated bibliography. This was my first time doing annotated bibliography, where we did research and analyzed an ethical issue. The annotated bibliography was basically analysis of our source material and how much it related to our research topic. The third piece is Unit 3 essay, I chose this essay because we build up on all the research we did for the unit 2 paper and wrote an argumentative essay about it that was persuasive and had an ethical argument. Writing this paper defiantly enhanced my critical thinking skills which will be curtail for the classes I will be taking in the future.

Both UNIV 111 and 112 have helped drastically improve my writing. I have learnt special skills like rhetorical analysis, writing argumentative essay, writing persuasive essay, a personal narrative, doing research and writing annotated bibliography. I have also learnt to site my sources in a proper MLA format. In the beginning of the first semester I did my writing assignments just to get it out if the way, but as the semester progressed the different assignments and class activity we did added up and my writing gradually improved. By the mid of first semester i started putting more effort and time in my work and i could see the results. Even if my writing did not improve that drastically the “fear” of writing papers and essays is now gone. The discussion board helped understand different aspects of writing and the fact that I could read what my peers wrote about the given topic gave me an insight to different forms writing and critical thinking approach.

Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography: Looking deeper into Criminal Profiling

My research on Behavioral analysis of serial killers/terrorists/criminals mainly focuses on two main ideas, Criminals : Why they do what they do? What goes on different in their mind that makes them burst out and commit violent crime and terror? The second is how does the science of psychology ~ Behavior analysis help predict patterns and behavior of different criminal minds since they all have different motives, crime techniques, reasons and background. How does the behavior analysis uncover their minds? Is profiling completely reliable or not?

My sources go deep into the science of behavior analysis and discuss their strength weaknesses. Some of the sources discuss more of the weaknesses and establish that criminal profiling does not have enough scientific support to be used as in investigation tool and should not be practiced at all whereas some of the other sources describes its importance , success and how it can be made more scientific.

After research I am clarified on questions like; Why do criminals commit crime ? How a terrorist group has easy access to vulnerable teens and easily brain wash their targets all over the world through internet? What kind of counter terrorism tac-tics can be used to prevent persuasion of terrorist group on youths all over the world? How an FBI agent reads a serial killers mind and behavior to capture him, how a serial killer/criminal thinks? How effective and accurate is criminal profiling? Does it lack scientific support to be used as an investigation tool? All of this information and research will definitely help formulate my Unit III essay.

Godwin, Maurice. “Reliability, Validity, and Utility of Criminal Profiling Typologies.” Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology 17.1 (2002): 1-18. Web.

Maurice Godwin discusses and examines deductive and inductive profiling methods. The techniques used by FBI to identify criminal activity and crime scenes. It also further discussed strengths, weaknesses, different approaches and theories behind criminal profiling and the reliability and validity of this technique for investigation. It concludes with a discussion on how we can overcome the critique and weakness within criminal profiling and how to make criminal profiling a more scientific process, more efficient investigative process.

This article is about 18 pages in length. Maurice examines different theories, principles and techniques that is used by behavioral analyst. His observations and research on many approaches of behavior analysis summarizes different techniques and gives us a rational idea on how profiling is done, why was this investigative tool first practiced and its utility and validity. he discusses strengths,weaknesses however he does not state or take a particular side on whether criminal profiling is good or bad, however towards the end of this source we find a little inclination which supports criminal profiling positively. It talks about the efficiency of criminal profiling and rather than being just an art, criminal profiling can be a scientific process. His observations and research are very reliable. The discussions of different theories and principles behind criminal profiling, analyzing a real examples, techniques used in real life cases by FBI, I think the author accomplishes his goal of discussing new ways of overcoming the weaknesses and explaining profiling in a more scientific terms.

This source will be useful to me because as the topic itself states, it explains reliability,validity and utility of Criminal profiling. It clearly explains many theories and principles around which behavior analysis is based upon. Additionally, it has also explained real life example on serial killers and how behavior analysis technique was used as an investigative tool. This article has definitely made me more aware of the processes and techniques and has made me more inclined toward positive aspects of profiling, it has also provided me a lot of information that will be very useful for my essay.

Snook, Brent, Richard M. Cullen, Craig Bennell, Paul J. Taylor, and Paul Gendreau. “THE CRIMINAL PROFILING ILLUSION.” What’s Behind the Smoke and Mirrors? (2008): n. pag. Sage Journals. Web.

This article is a research and analysis of five different authors Brent Snook, Richard M. Cullen, Craig Bennell, Paul J. Taylor and Paul Gendreau. The authors in this article outline different profiling techniques, theories used during investigation and why it is considered valuable by law enforcement tool, Later it argues that behavior analysis or criminal profiling has no scientific reasoning,theory and support enough to use it as a crime investigative tool. Authors argue that people have been mislead in a belief and illusion that criminal profiling always works even though there is not enough or reliable theoretical grounding and strong enough empirical support. The authors conclude that criminal profiling should not be used as an investigative tools as it lacks scientific support.

This article which is roughly 21 pages is devoted on explaining how there is lack of evidence,empirical reasoning and enough scientific evidence for CP to be used as a crime investigative tools. Authors have made very valid reason by expelling the principles behind the establishment of Criminal profiling and discuss how some of the ways in which information about criminal profiling is distorted and don’t have enough scientific support. The goal of this spruce is to establish that criminal profiling does not have enough scientific support and people are mislead to believe that it works all the time despite of no strong empirical reasoning. I think that the authors have proved their goal through their extensive research and reliable sources.

This article will be useful to my discussion, because unlike the other articles this article mainly highlights the weaknesses of profiling and gives us a different viewpoint and strong reasoning as to why depending criminal profiling alone might not be such a good idea. Even though this article does not change my viewpoint on the subject. It provides me with a great deal of information for my essay.

Egger, Steven E. “Psychological Profiling.” Psychological Profiling. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Apr. 2015

This article by Eggar examines the development of psychological profiling. As the topic itself states it discusses the present, past and future of Psychological profiling. This article highlights three of the most important dates which heavily contributed to the development of psychological profiling. Furthermore, it also discusses how it has developed and improved throughout all these years, this article has also included critique and evaluation on criminal profiling. Mainly the goal of this article is to educate the readers on how criminal profiling, the Behavioral analysis Unit and Crime Scene investigation was established, different critiques it has faced throughout all there years, current status and discussion observation and how the entire process is completed also the future of profiling and advantages of harvesting new technology is discussed in this source.

The article rather than taking a stand point on whether criminal profiling is efficient or not/good or bad. It mainly focuses on the how the entire profiling unit if the FBI developed, how it developed and where it is headed. The author intention is to give us information about criminal profiling and how it has been used throughout time. This source takes more of an informative approach. The examples he has used are all real life example and sources are used for his research are legitimate and highly reliable. I think that the author has met his goal by clearly giving reliable and rational and real life examples, he is able to deliver good information on profiling history,current status and the future through this article.

I learned a lot about criminal profiling , this article gave me a deeper understanding on the previous articles I read related to this subject matter.This article has definitely enhanced my understanding on how and why was profiling unit established. After reading this article I think I have better understanding and have a more clear viewpoint on the other sources used.

Freiburger, Tina, and Jeffery S. Crane. “The Internet as a Terrorist’s Tool A Social Learning Perspective.” Cyber Criminology: Exploring Internet Crimes and Criminal Behavior. By K. Jaishankar. Boca Raton, FL: CRC, 2011. 127-37. Print.

This chapter from the book “Cyber Criminology: Exploring Internet Crimes and Criminal Behavior”, how internet has become terrorist tool. How youths agree to sacrifice their life in terror acts like suicide bombings. Internet is being used by terrorist to communicate, exchange information,pictures ,recruit new members from all over the world. This chapter basically is a behavior analysis of this crime. Social Learning Theory by Akers has become main theory that explains criminal behavior throughout different age groups. This unit explains the psychological reasoning behind organized crime like this.

Since technology is big part of our lives. This chapter talks about cyber crime, terrorist and the behavior breakdown and reading of there groups.The goal of this chapter is to introduce new techniques being used through the use of technology. It gives us a new idea that the developing technology that aids in investigation and further development of profiling also equally aids the terrorist group by helping them be more time efficient.

I think this chapter will help me in my essay because it gives us more broader information on cyber crimes which I think is very important, considering the fact that everyone has gone digital and have their personal information on their computers and webs. Cyber crime is definitely a growing problem and approaching the topic from a social science perspective and examining computer crimes through the behavior patterns can be another good research area that can aid my research for the essay.

“Psychology of Serial Killers with Jim Clemente.” YouTube. YouTube, n.d. Web. 03 Apr. 2015.

This next source i chose is an interview of a retired FBI agent and supervisor and producer of the TV series Criminal Minds. Jim Clemete describes his experience of hunting down serial killers along with his behavioral analysis unit. In this interview he talks about real life cases and provides an insight ti the minds of predators among us.

This is a 43 minute long interview a series of question and answers on some of the most prolific criminals the agent had to deal with. He talks about how they operated in the field and breakdown the process of investigating most disturbing crime scenes and criminals. This source is reliable since it’s a former FBI agent himself talking about his experience, techniques difficulties which gives us an idea of success rated, validity and the importance of criminal profiling.

This definitely gave me more insight on my subject. Hearing from an expert who has had experience definitely changed my viewpoint on this topic and has provided me with a great deal of information for my essay.

Unit 3 essay

Criminal Profiling and Behavior Analysis

“Look for a heavy man. Middle-aged Foreign born. Roman Catholic. Single. Lives with a brother or sister. When you find him chances are he’ll be wearing a double-breasted suit. Buttoned.” This profile belongs to the one of the most prolific arsonist known as the “Mad Bomber”, who was responsible for more than 30 explosions in New York City for over 15 years. The profile helped narrow down the suspect pool, and when they finally caught him, the profile exactly matched the criminal the only difference was he lived with not with one brother or sister but with two sisters he was even wearing a double-breasted suit. Dr.Brusell later explained, instead of examining an individual directly and predicting his behavior he reversed the method and examined the crime scene, his behavior pattern and predicted the individual.This was the birth of criminal behavioral analysis.

Behavioral analysis of serial killers/terrorists/criminals mainly focuses on two main ideas, Criminals : Why they do what they do? What goes on different in their mind that makes them burst out and commit violent crime and terror? Behavior analysis is studying the crime scene in detail as from the behavior pattern of the crime, victims, the entire crime scene itself reveals something about the killers. As said by a former FBI profiler “Profiling is a combination of analyzing the physical and behavioral evidence, reconstructing a crime from the beginning to the end and coming up with the most scientific determination as possible with the information available.”

Behavior analysis science has been officially used by FBI since the 1970s. It has since than successfully used as a law enforcement technique. Analyzing the behavior and crime patterns does not give us the specific criminal . However, it narrows down the suspect pool and gives us an idea or a profile of someone who is capable or most likely responsible for the crime. Behavior analysis has been used to solve cases like rape,stalking, hostage taking,terrorist,arsonists etc. The Behavior Analysis and Research Unit of the FBI was created mostly to find serial killers As these crimes most feared crimes by the people as they are random and the serial killer usually has no motive behind killing. Crimes like this are usually done by sociopath and psychopaths who are well camouflaged as a normal next door guy. As a result these kind of crimes are very hard to crack down. Evidence left behind and crime scene are only the lead the police has. However every piece of evidence left behind, the victims, the geographical area of the crime scene, the way the victim has been killed or tortured each of these details reveals the behavior of the criminal. Basically an entire crime scene defines the criminal. “Profilers say that behavior reflects personality.”The examination of someones behavior will help us uncover their type who might be involved in a particular crime. Victims reveal the most about these type of crimes, according to my research victims are always a symbolic importance to serial killers. Some of the most prolific and famous serial killers that have been caught using criminal behavioral analysis are Ted Bundy, Son of Sam, Ed Gien, Richard Speck and many more.

“There’s nothing you can say is always true” about serial killers, said former FBI agent Gregg McCrary,. “If I was ever 100% right on a case, that’s just dumb luck. The important thing is not to get locked in and exclude people because they don’t fit the profile.”A former FBI agent Gregg McCrary explains how they are not always on point or right, this is why they have thorough studies of crime scenes with different members of the team using their expertise together and deliver a profile. Behavior analyst and profilers are experts who have been doing research and have been trained to deliver sound information about social and psychological variables of the offender. Behavior analyst and profilers grow more and more efficient with their experience and analysis of past crime. Since, it is studying a criminal psychology,personality there is no book or scientific method that is 100% accurate. However, these analyst or profilers are trained psychiatrist, law enforcement officers who have been doing statistical research on previous offenders and crimes. This statistical data are reviewed and accordingly the profile of an offender is built. Profiling and behavior analysis of criminal does not pin point a particular person but it helps police narrow dome the suspect pool so they can build their investigation around a certain characteristic. These days profilers follow these six steps to build a profile; input decision process: is looking at the organization and acquisition, this steps answers questions like how was the killer able to access the victim? Crime Assessment :is basically reconstructing the crime scene, they virtually step into criminals shoes and reconstruct the crime scene and figure out how did he/she killed the victim? Examining the victim and the way he/she was killed helps draw physical features like his height,body type:whether he is fit/strong or not, the victimology helps identify the motive of the killer. Criminal profile formation: After all the required datas are collected, they are combined and a profile of a possible suspect is formed. This Profile is delivered to the police and crime investigators who use it as an investigative tool. The final step is apprehension and investigation: profilers continually follow up and check their profile accuracy as new evidences get uncovered. They continue their investigation questions like
Whether the killer tried to cover his track and if so how did he do it? Why the particular victim was chosen, why would he be attracted to the victim and what drove him to kill the victim at that place at that time and place? Is there a motive or is it driven by fantasy and is random killing ( which would normally be psychopathic serial killer cases).

Criminal profiling and Crime behavior is surrounded by controversies like they are not reliable since they do not have a specific scientific protocol, and the profile is not always accurate and might lead to capturing a wrong person. According to one of my source, profiling lacks proper methodology and does not have enough empirical studies so it should not be used as an investigative tool in law enforcement. However, profiling is all about drawing a personality or characteristic of a possible suspect through the behaviors portrayed in the crime scenes. There is an argument that there cannot be a fixed set of particular scientific protocols for behavior analysis of different criminals and different type of crimes. Profiling is an investigative tools, many statistical decision we make in life or experience are not accurate. This lack of accuracy does not stop us fem taking risks or making a wrong decision. Even the justice system relies on the evidence and how strong the evidence is for or against and decides who is guilty and who is not. Experts who have proper knowledge and training in this field are able to aid investigators get one step closer to a dangerous criminal. I think this is an immensely helpful violent crime investigation tool and with developing technology and research it can overcome the weaknesses and criticism.


Godwin, Maurice. “Reliability, Validity, and Utility of Criminal Profiling Typologies.” Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology 17.1 (2002): 1-18. Web.

Snook, Brent, Richard M. Cullen, Craig Bennell, Paul J. Taylor, and Paul Gendreau. “THE CRIMINAL PROFILING ILLUSION.” What’s Behind the Smoke and Mirrors? (2008): n. pag. Sage
Journals. Web.

Egger, Steven E. “Psychological Profiling.” Psychological Profiling. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Apr. 2015

Freiburger, Tina, and Jeffery S. Crane. “The Internet as a Terrorist’s Tool A Social Learning Perspective.” Cyber Criminology: Exploring Internet Crimes and Criminal Behavior. By K. Jaishankar. Boca Raton, FL: CRC, 2011. 127-37. Print

“Psychology of Serial Killers with Jim Clemente.” YouTube. YouTube, n.d. Web. 03 Apr. 2015.

Wagner, Dennis. “ – Criminal Profiling ‘between Science and Art'” – Criminal Profiling ‘between Science and Art’ N.p., 24 Aug. 2006. Web. 01 May 2015.

Group Presentation Feedback

Group Presentation Feedback

I think that second group (creativity) did a great job involving the audience, they were very interactive. Their games were very informative and entertaining at the same time. It made us think outside the box and required us to be creative, and was focused on their topic. I zoned out a little bit on the dance videos they could have shorten it a little bit. I think their presentation gave us message on how important creativity is when it comes to invention, science and how human civilization had prospered because of the ability of humans to think creatively and outside the box.

Whenever we think about scientists and researchers and invention we directly relate it to how academically smart they are or how much they know about science but we neglect the fact that, creativity is the reason behind existence of science. The power to think how something existed or how something was formed itself and the hunger to know more is all because of creativity and the ability of humans to think outside the box. I enjoyed the presentation and they also did a great job relating it top Radioactive and how all the scientific findings and research is because of creativity. They could have added more videos that related to science and inventions also focusing on teamwork and the importance of many creative minds working together as one. The presentation made everyone aware of how creativity differentiates us from machines, animals and how powerful creativity can be. In the class discussion after the presentation almost everyone had something to say about the topic and their view point on importance of creativity.

Little about me


I am Aausi, sadly I am already a sophomore and in three short years my wonderful college life is going to end. I had the privilege of being a student of Dr.Vikki Pallo. I am a business major with concentration on finance and information system. I am getting my own house next semester, my very own crib. I am very excited to experience and live at my “own place”. I very much enjoy company of Netflix, my favorite shows currently are Criminal Minds and Game of thrones.

Unit 3 essay

Should Nuclear Power Plants be the Next Generation Energy Source?

In recent years there has been a great deal of enthusiasm about increasing industrialization and exponentially increasing demand of energy worldwide. Experts around the world have debated over the best alternative source that is able to replace the traditional source like coal and fossil fuels. Many countries including India, Britain and the U.S. have been debating over using established yet controversial source of energy; Nuclear Power. Since the disaster struck at the Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan on March 11, 2011 nuclear reactors have been looked as a risky and dangerous investment.  Since, it has both advantages and disadvantages people are either support it or are against it. How Safe are US Nuclear Reactors? Lessons from Fukushima written by David Biello is an example of an article that highlights the positive aspects of nuclear power plants and Limitations of Nuclear Power as a Sustainable Energy written by Joshua M. Pearce talks about how nuclear power would be a bad source by highlighting negative aspects of it.
 Both of these articles have completely different viewpoint on Nuclear power. Biello’s article suggests that the nuclear reactor in Fukushima had flaws, which we can now overcome by harnessing new advanced technology. Pearce article talks about how nuclear power plants cannot be a good alternate source for future. Between these two articles Pearce’s article is more persuasive and addresses the negative effects by giving detailed, easily understandable and real life examples. He explains about the past negative effects and explains us the potential risk and how we would be affected if the same accident were to repeat again. Biello on his article informs us about how Fukushima power plant occurred because of flaws on the reactor, what were the flaws and the new solution. In the article he has shown encouragement to establish new power plant and not be stuck in the past mishaps and fear. However, the article does not talk about the certainty of this accident not happening. It does not provide enough factual information; like scientific results and analysis from scientific research that indicates its completely safe etc. It stresses more on the flaws and addresses the “possible solutions” rather than an actual example of where this new technology or the possible solution as mentioned has been used. 
How safe are Nuclear Reactors? Lessons from Fukushima, by David Biello published was on March 9, 2012 after the eye opening accident of the Fukushima power plant at Japan. This article talks about how we should be more flexible and not be so close-minded and fearful of nuclear plants. He explains how US reactors have same design as the melted down Fukushima reactor, but by adding new reactors would eliminate this weakness. The topic itself gives us the idea that the article is about how the past mistakes can be a guide to make nuclear power plants safer, hence leading to an efficient replaceable energy source. While the facts and explained data about the disastrous power plants as well as the solution affirms that there was a flaw and there is a actual scientific solution to it, still does not completely clarify the readers about other drawbacks of nuclear plants such as how would the harmful radioactive waste be managed, how would the retired plants and the radioactive remains be stored?

According to Pearce article which was published on 7th June 2012, reports that in order to be considered a sustainable source it requires “(i) radically improve the energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions intensity by improved technology and efficiency through the entire life cycle to prevent energy cannibalism during rapid growth; (ii) eliminate nuclear insecurity to reduce the risks associated with nuclear power so that the free market can insure the nuclear industry without large public nuclear energy insurance subsidies; (iii) eliminate all radioactive waste at the end of life and minimize the environmental impact during mining and operations; and (iv) the nuclear industry must regain public trust or face Obsolescence as a steady stream of renewable energy technologies quickly improve both technical and economic performance”(10). According to this viewpoint a source is only sustainable if it’s completely efficient, does not produce any harmful byproducts and is renewable. Rather than just concentrating on one factor Pearce emphasizes on qualities that an alternative source needs to have to be considered sustainable source and points out the weaknesses of nuclear plants. His argument is strong; since it covers many topics, which are all directly related to the society that we live in, it very effectively catches the readers’ attention.

Both of the authors draw their facts and data from many different sources. Biello has 19 different sources, most of which are news reports. Each of these reports has in-depth explanation of different topics all of them related to the Japanese Nuclear Plant accident.  Even though these reports covers in-depth information, about the incident, the sources used are only past news report rather than scientific research study. It’s more of past news reports rather than an actual research. Since, there is not more scientific study and research included in Biello’s research about the topic, it makes his article less informative and less persuasive. Pearce’s factual arguments are drawn from 84 different sources. Among which 17 of them are scientific research done in different universities. It discusses many weak points nuclear plants has, and what it needs to overcome in order to be considered a sustainable alternate source of energy and provides more scientific ground because of the research he has done. 
How Safe are US Nuclear Reactors? Lessons from Fukushima, as the topic itself suggests the article is in response to that particular incident.  However, it also talks about how nuclear could be a good alternate source, but since it mostly focused only on the accident, the cause and the solution to that particular cause, it overlooked the other major problems with nuclear power plants. The lack of further explanation and analysis of additional weaknesses of nuclear power plant makes this article rhetorically less effective. 
Biello’s article that focuses more on the positive aspects of nuclear power plant informs us that the accident took place because of the flaws in the system and there is solution to the problems it faced before. His article educates us on how the accident occurred and new technology could be harnessed to get rid of these flaws. Pearce’s article gives us broad information on almost all the disadvantages and potential harm of nuclear plant. These article with overlapping views no doubt provide good amount of information and have credible information on possible future of nuclear power plants. However, the sources utilized by Pearce to justify the factual argument make his information and piece more convincing and credible. Pearces’s article has a stronger standpoints and data to support his arguments. Not only does the article informs us the negative effects it also suggests possible measures and steps that have been taken by the scientific community and government to help make it a better potential alternative energy source of the future.

Works Cited

“How Safe Are U.S. Nuclear Reactors? Lessons from Fukushima.” Scientific American Global RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Dec. 2014.

“Limitations of Nuclear Power as a Sustainable Energy Source.” MDPI. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Dec. 2014.

Unit 2 Essay

Aausi Prasai
711 West Main Street,
Richmond, Virginia
November 2, 2014

Kandeh K.Yumkella
405 East 42 Street,
New York, NY, 10017

Respected sir,
“In reality drilling is the slowest, dirtiest, and most expensive way to solve our energy crisis.” I am writing this letter to call your attention on the current energy usage and its harmful impact. We are highly dependent on energy, energy is a way of life. The dependency of man on energy has played a key role on the technological advancement. The industrial revolution that triggered 200 years ago was because of discovery of black coal, this became the major source of energy that launched the industrial era. Oil and gas has also become essential source for industries. We still heavily rely on these nonrenewable sources for energy due to over exploitation we have reached a point where there might not be any of these sources left for future generations and also the effect of extraction of these sources on the environment. However, since technology has gotten so advance, we should encourage on making alternative sources of energy more efficient.
Energy is the reason behind us being able to perform various day to day tasks. We are so dependent on it that human existence won’t be possible without it. It is also one of the most essential prerequisite for any nation’s prosperity and economic development. The prosperity and economy of a country largely depends on accessibility of energy. Industrialization will not take place if there is no energy to run the factories. Hence, one of the major concerns of the world today is to increase the availability of energy by producing more energy that we would be able to renew, would last for a really long time.
There is such a high demand for energy due to industrialization. Developed countries consume majority amount of fossil fuels out of the total energy available in the world whereas the developing and under-developed countries use fifteen percent. Fossil fuels are major source of energy for industries, transportation, residential and commercial use. Since there is more demand of energy than the production, the uneven imbalance between the demand and supply has resulted in energy crisis. Since fossil fuel takes millions of years to form, researches have estimated that the reserves will soon be empty. About eighty-five percent of total world energy comes from fossil fuels. The respective breakdown being thirty seven percent oil, 25 percent coal, 23 percent gas.
There is higher demand of energy sources in developed countries like USA, Japan, and Western Europe, the demand is so high that they import energy to meet their daily needs for e.g., China Imports more than fifty percent of its energy needs. The largest fossil fuel reserves is located in Middle East. Arab countries poses 61 percent of oil reserves. This uneven distribution is one of the cause of energy crisis. The demand of energy have heaved throughout the world. Energy consumption is predicted to increase 50 per cent by 2030. The world’s economy right now is dependent on fossil fuel energy. China has doubled its oil supply and oil use over a decade to 5.55 million barrels per day and by 2020 it might need 11 million barrels a day. Similarly, consumption has multiplied in Central Asia due to industrialization. The lack of diversity of resources is the chief cause of energy crisis.
Not only over dependency on these fuels have caused economic crisis, it has also caused political crisis and has made countries go to war with each other. For e.g.; US went to war with Iraq in 1991 Gulf War. Beside the socio-economic crisis, there is fear of global warming. Burning hydrocarbons are the main source of greenhouse gases. Burning coal is responsible for 43 percent of carbon emission, oil and gas emit 40 percent of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. The process of extracting these fuel releases chemicals and pollutants that causes breathing problems, birth defects. The combustion of fossil fuel severely affects climate by causing acid rain, that eventually causes land and water pollution. We all should realize that these resources are finite and we should use it wisely and efficiently, before everything depletes.
We should take advantage and harness the advanced technology we have and find innovative way of using alternative source. Solar energy, wind energy, nuclear energy, geo thermal energy can be used as alternative forms of energy. Not only these are renewable but they are clean sources of energy. Main reason why scientists have not exploited these areas for producing energy in the past are; technological backwardness, initial cost problems. However since now technology has reached a new level we should focus on these sources.
Solar energy can be converted and used for different domestic purpose instead of using fossil fuels. Only 0.5% of world’s energy comes from solar energy. Wind energy is another clean form of energy. According to US Department of energy world’s wind is able to supply 15 times its current energy demand. Atomic energy is cheapest source to harness energy, and also one of the most efficient way of solving current energy problems. One nuclear pellet is able to produce energy equivalent to seventeen thousand cubic ft. of natural gas. Hydrogen, one of the most abundant element on earth and can be burnt to be used as a major source of energy in industries and vehicles. Scientists say that if this source is produced in large scale than it will eventually become a primary source of energy and can replace fossil fuels.
Even though renewable sources at this time may not be considered economically competitive as fossil fuels but we must consider its enormous advantages like its environmental benefits, the fact that it could replace oil, gas. We should remember that fossil fuels are very finite and our future generation must be able to enjoy its luxury and efficiency. If we take right step right now and start using the alternative sources in combination with the fossil fuels than it could develop a new platform for industries and economic development for future.
As we can see the world gets more advanced and there is new invention every day. Industrialization will keep growing and unless we find alternative source of energy, we won’t be able to meet the demand of increasing population and industries. This will eventually lead to completion for resources among nations. If we don’t start taking advantage of technology and harness it to produce alternative source of energy than the world will go into economic, political turmoil. We should encourage every nation to take this step and find a solution, by finding an alternative permanent source that is clean renewable.
Aausi Prasai

Works Cited

“How Safe Are U.S. Nuclear Reactors? Lessons from Fukushima.” Scientific American Global RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Dec. 2014.

“Limitations of Nuclear Power as a Sustainable Energy Source.” MDPI. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Dec. 2014.

Unit I essay

When Reality Slapped Me!

I was panting and sweating and yelling out for motivation: “Almost there! Almost there!” I had nearly completed the hike that my friends and I had started. ” Breakfast is ready, wake up!” my mom yelled.  I was just about to experience the glory of completing the arduous hike when her voice and the aroma of a delicious breakfast awakened me. As I rubbed the sleep off my eyes, I wished my mother had given me five more minutes to complete my journey.  
When I got to the breakfast table, I told my mom about the dream and my feelings of dissatisfaction at not completing the hike. She smiled while listening to my story and the complaint that came along with it. Humorously she said, “Well, go and finish it right now.”  I don’t know exactly what her intentions were, but it was enough to plant the seed of possibility that I could actually hike the trail of my dreams. I would literally make a dream come true!  After all, it was summer and the weather was perfect. I enthusiastically assembled a group of friends who were up for the challenge. I had simultaneous feelings of excitement and anxiety for good reason.
We gathered the equipment that we thought would be an aid to us while completing the journey and drove for nearly three hours before we reached our destination. After checking in to a nearby hotel, we set off to make my dream a reality.  This was one of the most famous hiking trails in Daman, Nepal.  The village of Daman offers one of the best views of the Himalayas and sits at an altitude of almost 8,000 feet.  The hike we planned traverses a thick, lush forest straight up a mountain.  At the top there is a Hindu Deity temple – a spiritual respite for some.
We started off as I believed we had in my dream, but the hike was nowhere easy as I had experienced during sleep.  By the time we had completed half of the hike, I had fallen three times because of slippery, moss-covered stones, and had been bitten by a countless number of leaches. One of my friends brushed against poison ivy and broke out so badly that she had to return to the hotel accompanied by a second friend who was simply exhausted. I was freaking out inside. None of these challenges was present in my dream, nor did I have a sense of how tired and achy I would be. Reality slapped me in the face and left a message that life is not as easy as a dream. I had to complete this challenge with or without my friends. Luckily, three friends made the decision to move on and complete the journey by my side. 
On my way to the top, I observed a myriad of natural wonders.  Most notably, was that I drank straight from a famous spring, which flowed directly from the Himalayas.  The taste was a sensation I had never before experienced. As I was slowly getting closer to end, when the four of us finally reached the zenith of the mountain, we witnessed one of the most spectacular natural scenes anywhere on earth. As the soft setting sunlight kissed the snow peaks of the mountain, the snow reflected the golden rays. It was like the entire Himalaya was covered in golden dust and the dreamy blue sky was a perfect contrast with a slight shade of orange.  It was a breath-taking view of the Himalayas. About 6000 feet of altitude gifted us the view of the green pine forest covered hills, the height of which just covered the foot of the snow peaks. The layers of snow cloaked Himalaya and the pine forest hills with the perfect golden setting sunlight was natures masterpiece painted in a dreamy blue canvas. I actually inhaled audibly. Some tourists were tearing up because of the impressive sight. I felt my heart almost skipping beats.  I felt an enormous sense of contentment and excitement.  It was the most beautiful moment of my life.  I had never felt so accomplished.   My suffering on the hike that I had not seen in my dreams was all worth it when I saw the result of my perseverance.
I learnt what I believe is one of the most valuable thing a teenager could learn.  Dreams are beautiful, motivational, and achievable.  The route one takes may be slippery, painful, and discouraging, but at the same time, this experience helps us to grow, learn, and become better.  The fruits of one’s labor bring joy, self-confidence, and satisfaction.  If I had seen the view of the Himalayas without having completed the arduous hike, I am convinced I would have felt differently, not as satisfied, and content. Thus far, this is the most significant experience I have ever had.  
      “Learning is not something that just happens to you, it is something that you do to yourself. You cannot be “given” learning, nor can you be forced to do it”(Leamson, 10). This is one of my favorite quotes from the readings we have done in class. I believe that learning is a life long process; from the moment you are born till you die you are constantly learning something new from the people around you and from your experiences. You suffer from your experience and you grow from each one. This makes our entire existence worthwhile. The process of learning something may not always be interesting or fun but we have to understand that what pains us today gives us strength tomorrow. Everything we learn will be used by us will be used in our lives and we pass them on to the future generations.

Works Cited
Leamson, Robert, Ph D. Learning (Your First Job) (n.d.): n. pag. Dec. 2002. Web. 5 Oct. 2014.

Reflection on UNIV 111

Reflection on UNIV 111

I never thought I would even be close to an okay writer. Coming in as a freshmen I was mostly scared of writing long papers and getting used to submit 5 pages long essays and research parers which is not even long for a college student. Writing requires lot of time, research, critical thinking all of these qualities combine and makes a good paper. Through this class have definitely gotten over my fear of writing papers. The essay that we wrote, journals, reading all the homework’s ,class activities we did helped me understand the process more. Writing is a process that takes lots of time, commitment, and understanding to really help us develop our ideas and put them on paper. From the beginning of the semester till the end, step by step we were taught different writing techniques , ways of effectively reading articles and analyzing the strengths and weakness of the readings. The techniques that we learnt made me think outside the box and push the boundaries of my thinking . I started taking better notes,annotating and questioning while reading.
I have included Unit I,II,III essays in this portfolio as these were the major assignments for this class. I chose these three and I spent most time on them and learnt new techniques of reading writing and analyzing each time. Unit I we wrote about a personal experience, even though the essay was personal we were made to think more in depth about the experiences we had. We concentrated in detailed information, what we learnt from the experience and how does this tie in to the real world. This essay enhanced our observational skills, critical thinking, what kind of evidence and information is needed to support our idea. This essay was about a personal experience and what we learnt from it, we were able to project and explain our idea so the readers.
Unit II, we wrote about an issue that bothered us. We had to more research on this paper about our topic. It further developed my understanding on rhetorical analysis, written communication as we had to reflect and project our idea on a contemporary issue. Our main goal was to state our own opinion and make connection between other sources. The skills that I developed was research skills, ways to identify a good source.
UnitIII, essay was the most challenging one of all. We had to research about an ethical dilemma, find two articles that somewhat overlapped each other views, evaluate the credibility of each source, and evaluate each article. Wiring this essay and this unit enchanted my skills like evaluating sources and their credibility.
All these writings and the skills they I have developed will help me write a good paper in the future. This class has sharpened my research skills, analytical thinking, observational analysis. These are the qualities i will head to be successful in any class i enroll in the future. Thanks to this class I have become more confident in writing and reading and no longer see it as such a big challenge like I did before.

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