Source 4: Complex collaborations: India and international agendas on girls’ and women’s education, 1947–1990

By: Rosie Peppin Vaughan

Credentials: Institute of Education, University of London, United Kingdom

Main Point: To see how international organizations are affecting women’s educational movement in India, post independence in 1947. The article provides even broader detail on not just a national level of the movement, but international as well. The government and huge international organizations like UNESCO and the World Bank are also taken into play on how much their work is actually helping to progress the movement.

Author’s Purpose: The author’s purpose is to research into how much the educational movement for women is actually progressing post independence with large national and international organizations and the governmental policies regarding the push for change. The author even states that “the case of girls’ and women’s rights in education may be one in which there is an unusually high level of advocacy, due both to the presence of the international women’s movement and also a vibrant women’s movement in India” that needs to be pushed even further by government and society.


“The Bank’s more centralized structure of policy-making formed clearer policy messages, which became more dominant in the wake of UNESCO’s relative decline after the 1970s and once education became one of its main operational areas… Girls’ and women’s education was therefore increasingly a policy priority for the World Bank and UNESCO, conceptualized in ways which shifted over time”

“From independence in 1947 until 1974, the pinnacle of Indian governmental activity on women’s education was the establishment of the National Committee on Women’s Education in 1958, accompanied by the allocation of Rs. 2.5 crores (equivalent to US $5.25 million at the time) for ‘programmes for the expansion of the education of girls and women”

“The 1949 Constitution unequivocally stated that men and women should have equal rights, including equal rights to education. Both the 1959 and 1966 reports reflected this: equality of access to education was identified as an explicit goal, framed as an intrinsic legal right based on institutional redress; the stated aim in both reports was to bring girls’ school attendance in line with boys’, and achieve parity of educational enrolment up to the age of 14.”

“This repositioning of gender and education was strikingly apparent in the 1986 National Policy on Education (NPE) (Government of India, 1986). ‘Education for Women’s Equality’ was a distinct section in the 1986 NPE, focused on the socially transformative power of education to bring changes in the status of women, aiming to redesign entirely the approach to educating girls”

My Say/Rate: This article provides a lot of good information that I can use in my paper, because it takes the focus away a bit from not just cultural blocks but governmental involvement as well, which is a huge part of educational setback as well. I rate this article a 4.


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