Research Nugget #5

Scholarly Article

APA Citation: Johnston, P. (2011). 3-D Printing: The Future Comes Round Again. Seybold Report: Analyzing Publishing Technologies, 11(19), 5-9.

Live Link to Article: 3-D Printing: The Future Comes Round Again

This article does not necessarily comprise of information regarding 3D printing in the medical field but its information is applicable to the overall concept. Peter Johnston at the start states that 3D printing is a technology emerging with the potential to be considerably more disruptive to more people than desktop publishing ever though about being. He continues his article to state the breakdown and history of 3D printing.

Johnston’s biggest statement of the article is the fact of 3D printing ruining many industries. Being able to printing virtually anything will give rise to counterfeiting and for digital data to be stolen. Johnston states instances in the past where problems like this came about along with a new technology such as movies being recorded, Hermes and Gucci bags being counterfeited, and songs being illegally downloaded. It could create issues like the ones listed above or change the manufacturing industry. Johnston then closes with the statement that there are, as noted, more questions than answers in the longer term potential of 3D imaging but is certain to grow.

“One utterly predictable result of the spread and improvement of 3-D printing will be a fevered surge of activity on the part of thieves and intellectual property lawyers. Copying a physical object is difficult. It can be done—witness the hordes of people selling counterfeit Hermes and Gucci bags and twenty-dollar Rolexes on any street corner in midtown Manhattan—but it requires a newsletter_identity_theftcertain amount of skill and is fairly easy to detect.

Copying a digital product, as the movie and music industries have learned to their sorrow, is a snap. Once an object—the latest smart phone, for example—can be described in a digital file and played out on a 3-D printer—it becomes much, much easier to steal. In time, probably not a long time, pirated files for all sorts of currently secure products will be available on the Internet.”

Along with the advancement of 3D printing comes the problem a lot of areas have suffered from like name brand manufacturers, movie companies, and the music industry. They suffer from the crime of theft. I am sure in some instances some of you have downloaded a song or watched a movie for free. This is one of upcoming problems 3D printing might face. Unlike Hampson, Johnston presents a problem that makes money not a factor. Since 3D printing starts digitally on a computer or other forms of digital capability it is possible to be copied.

I related this to the fact that 3D printing in the medical field might suffer from similar repercussions. Identical to the fact that drugs are stolen and abused, 3D printing could undergo the same process. I am not stating that it is a bad thing that others could possibly print their own prosthetic body parts or organs but it would ruin the industry and possibly cause more problems when mistreated.

“What is considerably less predictable is the macro effect of one-at-a-time manufacturing. Over the past couple of decades, the People’s Republic of China has enjoyed a huge, in some ways unprecedented, increase in prosperity. The mainspring of this prosperity has been China’s ability to provide quick-turnaround, high-quality manufacturing capability cheaper than any other country in the world. There are some deeply unattractive things about this success story, but there is no question the success is real and spectacular.

At first glance, nothing about desktop manufacturing appears to be in- compatible with the Chinese model. If it is more effective, one can easily imagine them clearing out their assembly lines and replacing them with vast halls full of 3-D printers, all chugging away in the dark, making flashlights, hearing aids, or whatever. But, the question this technology raises is not where factories should be located, but whether factories should exist at all. Factories are a relatively recent phenomenon; in their modern form they began proliferating about 200 years ago to make the most of the possibilities of the Industrial Revolution.”

On a bigger scale 3D printing’s ability to be a desktop manufacturing device might change the way things are made similar to China’s efficient ability to manufacture products cheaper than any other country. Yes it would be great if people could have their own 3D printer inside their homes and print whatever they needed to but it would ruin the circulation of money. Could these micro and macro effects potentially ruin the economy of our country or possibly the world? If products are easily counterfeited, data able to be stolen, technology abused, and 3D printers able to replace workers the world could suffer from another Industrial Revolution?

third-industrial-revolutionOverall this article made me look at 3D printing on an economic stand point. Oddly enough it could possibly flourish companies making these machines but ruin a substantial amount of other companies and industries as a whole.

Research Nugget #4

Scholarly Article

APA Citation: FENSKE, S. (2014). 3D Printing a Healthcare Revolution. Medical Design Technology, 18(4), 6.

Live Link to Article: 3D Printing a Healthcare Revolution

Sean Fenske in his article states his view of 3D printing on the world along with the many lingering questions that it produces. Fenske takes a more practical look at the effect of 3D printing on the medical field. He points out that 3D printing is a remarkable piece of technology but then identifies the components of a failed implant occurring. In addition he leaves you with these two questions that remain unanswered. If something were to happen who would be blamed, the printer manufacturer, material supplier, doctor, or hospital? Since this deals with liability can the FDA be expected to ensure the safety?

Fenske then closes by reiterating what he had stated in the beginning of this article. He agrees that 3D printing will continue to shock the world in many industries including the medical field. We are just scratching the surface of this technology but before we proceed there are many questions that need to be resolved.

“When you have 3D printing innovators able to travel to third world countries to fabricate prosthetics for children who have lost limbs, that’s revolutionary medicine. When you can print human tissue and implant it into a patient in place of a graft, that is extraordinary medicine. When you can combine today’s high resolution imaging capabilities with the functionality of a 3D printer, the possibilities for creation grow substantially. I anxiously await the next 3D printed breakthroughs that transform the quality of care we are able to provide.

Unfortunately, although it offers such a huge upside, the technology does not make such an impact without leaving lingering questions as we move forward. As more solutions in health- care are able to be printed, who is developing these “blueprints?” If a stent can be 3D printed, who is providing the design for that? Do we think the doctors and surgeons who will be using the printed technologies are qualified to also design them? Will philanthropic developers emerge who will offer the designs for 3D print- ed solutions to anyone who is able to use them? Will an open-source resource be established such that developers from around the world can help tweak ideas to create a product that can actually be used for a patient?”

Similar to Hampson, Fenske also indicates the problems 3D printing will cause in the future but in the short run and asks many questions that can only be answered as time goes by. They both also agrees that 3D printing technology is going to touch and impact the medical field significantly, but Fenske highlights on the fact that a transplant is bound to fail. Hampson in his article states problems we will face socioeconomically. What Fenske states in this article is very similar since it but deals with liability uprising topic 3D printing presents. Fenske is right a failure is inevitable and liability is a problem that needs to be solved before the procedures can occur.

And that brings us to the FDA. How can the FDA be expected to reasonably ensure the safety of a device when it is printed in a hospital and has not gone through the typical safety measures? Sure, the design could have certainly been tested, revised, and tested again, before being submitted to the FDA for approval. But who can verify that what was designed and approved is the same thing as what is being output from a 3D printer in every single instance? If that type of assurance is unable to be achieved, will the FDA ever permit the 3D printing of a stent, for example, that is used in a human body? If the process for the manufacture of the stent in a healthcare facility has not been validated, will it ever actually be fit for use in the eyes of the FDA?

Do we then expect the FDA to put a health- care facility through an inspection, similar to those performed at an OEM’s facility? The FDA can barely handle the inspection of current OEM facilities; adding hospitals interested in 3D printing devices that can be used in a medical procedure would certainly overload the system. Even if third parties are used, will hospitals suddenly start applying for ISO 13485 to help enable them to 3D print medical devices?”

fdalogodhhsIn terms of liability Fenske generates the conclusion that the FDA will soon have to be involved. Derived from the questions Fenske is stating the FDA seems to be the most suitable agency for a task like this. The FDA is obviously already in charge of a lot, does this problem mean there has to be a new agency to inspect this area of medicine and is this even under there jurisdiction of inspection? Equivalent to the means of living and socioeconomic effects stated by Hampson, liability seems to be another problem that comes along with 3D printing’s success.

3D printing again proves to be once of the most successful pieces of technology but along with success comes its problems. Is there an area 3D printing effects that is close to hitting the problem free surface?

Ebsco Host Tutorial Assignment

Screenshots of Ebsco research articles:

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Screen Shot 2014-07-18 at 4.15.25 PMRevised Research Question: How is Bioprinting able to revolutionize and be the largest impact on the future of medicine, yet in the end cause more problems?

Search Terms and Combinations: Bioprinting, Bioprinting AND Impact, 3d printing AND Medical, 3d printing, AND Medical AND Social, Bioprinting and Future, Bioprinting AND Future AND Impact, Bioprinting AND Effect, Bioprinting Ethic, Bioprinting AND Immoral, Bioprinting AND Stem cells, Bioprinting AND Future

In Ebsco I read through dozens of articles but only saved these five so far. I plan on rereading these articles and thoroughly dissecting them. The most promising articles I have found so far are 3D Printing a Healthcare Revolution, 3-D Printing: The Future Come Round Again, and THE FUTURE OF MEDICINE: Are Custom-Printed Organs on the Horizon? Based off of the skimming I did, these articles seemed to really connect with my question. These articles are going challenge my thinking and give me an intelligent perspective on Bioprinting. I changed my course of research to sway further from the teachings of Bioprinting and toward the social impact although I will still include a rudimentary explanation of the topic and examples.

Research Nugget #3

Revised

APA Citation: Hampson, G. (2013, August 23). Bioprinting and Immortality . . Retrieved July 17, 2014, from http://nationalscience.org/blog/nsci-focus-areas/science-transfer/2013/bioprinting-and-immortality/

Devil and angel pulling 3d person for handsLive Link to Article: Bioprinting and Immortality

In this article Hampson takes a stab at the ethical side of Bioprinting, which could be the most important branch in the medical field. Hampson explains that Bioprinting is not happening any time soon because of all the technical challenges. He continues to state many questions and explanations of the effect of Bioprinting toward our future. One main point he makes is that if Bioprinting turns out to be a success we might change the definition of life itself and push the limits of our planet.

Bioprinting will impact our lives by causing easily replacing organs, changing medical costs, and creating a higher quality of life, in the short run. If the brakes of Bioprinting are removed cancer, disability, injury, and even old age become simple obstacles in life. In addition, socioeconomic impacts organs will turn into everyday products, then money will play a large roll in our lives, literally. Retirement, disability care, and Social Security will be among the minimal worries oppose to human potential and performance.

“Hyperbole? Yes—definitely over the short term. But over the longer term? Consider just the possible implications of organ printing —this development alone will be extraordinarily impactful. What kinds of changes are ahead if we are someday able to simply replace diseased, damaged or failing organs instead of living shortened lives, or dealing with chronic and debilitating long-term illnesses, treatments and limitations? Reduced long-term medical costs? Higher productivity? Markedly higher quality of life?

We can do transplants now, of course, but the availability of organs, the complexity of transplant operations, and the rejection rates involved keep these procedures from being more commonplace. What happens when we remove these brakes and the scale and availability of transplant operations increases dramatically? Will we get to the point where cancer, disability, injury, and even old age become a fraction of the peril they are today and have been throughout human history? And will medical science be up to the challenge? Is transplant science going to advance enough to keep pace with the inevitable demand? And what about brain science? If restoring organ life after organ death is going to be possible, then preserving brain life will be key and more research and development will be needed in this area. Until we can learn to print brains as well (or grow them).”

impactHampson is obviously looking toward the future repercussions of Bioprinting. Although in its successful early stages, Bioprinting seems to make a ripple effect bigger than we can handle. If not controlled for certain purposes Bioprinting could change the past, present and future of people’s lives. We would be able to bring people back to life, cure them of any injury by replacing body parts, and basically make them live forever. Brandon Griggs states in his article that 3D printing will advance much faster than the understanding of the technology. 3D printing and Bioprinting in their short time of being alive has evolve substantially. It started off only being able to print simple objects with plastic or metal, then began printing complex objects. Once noticed 3D printing was applied to the medical field where doctors, engineers, and scientists began printing using different materials such as biopolymers. As it advanced in the medical field 3D printing turned into Bioprinting, using different gels to harness cells in which the cells would grow and possibly make organs, tissues, cartilage, etc. Obviously 3D printing has come a long way in such a short time and has shown to be nothing but beneficial but could it be too fast for us to understand that it might hurt us in the end?

655cd285771103054ef5e2202cfbfe89*Thanks to Tom Woodward’s (@twoodwar) tweet, I was able to include this photo which could serves somewhat of a representation of the Bioprinting field possibly turning into a business.

“What about the minor socioeconomic impacts? Will an “organ gap” develop between those who can afford to extend life and those who can’t? Will insurers draw a line drawn between “emergency” use and quality-of-life or even “off-label” vanity use? And how will vanity use develop—from buying better brand-name body parts to assessing the legality of their use in society (what athlete wouldn’t want to have Nike brand lungs, after all)? And who will own these custom body parts? Will they have warranties attached?

What about the ethical questions? What if a very elderly person wants to extend their life for another 50 years? Do we print them a new set of organs—heart, eyes, kidneys? Why not? In fact, as technology continues to progress, what happens if we start printing entire living creatures? Combined with recent ideas about uploading new information directly into the brain, can we contemplate a day in the not-so-distant future where we are capable of simply printing humans and providing them with starter set of information to compensate for their time not spent in the womb—Womb 101?

Would we just print babies or older humans as well? Would the humans we print belong to a different class of humans (for instance, the religiously inclined might worry that these are humans with no soul or a lesser connection to the divine). Would they be “copyrightable” humans with designer parts?”

The concepts Hampson states in his article might sound outrageous and far fetched but then again things like 3D printing and Bioprinting are changing rapidly. This may change the way you think Bioprinting will impact humans. To keep it simple, a lot of these “what-if” questions could or could not be applicable in the future. In recent 3D printing research the pros are out weighing the cons, but could that be the case in the future? Yes 3D printing might alter the very nature of our existence but that is what humans do. We adapted and move on to new obstacles in life, which is exactly what we are doing here. Along time ago people were suffering from organ failures. As a result doctors came up with organ transplants. As organ transplants come to a seize and the number of donations can not keep up with the number of patients that need transplants, a new method must be thought up. This new method would be the 3D printing of organs or could it?

This article revealed a new way to view Bioprinting and also included the the importance it will carry. I would have to disagree with Hamspon, Bioprinting is indeed going to be a pivotal branch of the medical field but its impact will not be as severe as he is contemplating it to be. Hampson’s article also presented many questions I would have never thought of. Without a doubt, Bioprinting is the future of our lives and future lives.

Inconvenience

Sorry to my classmates for missing a few days. I will be gone a few days because of this cruise that told me there was free wifi. Of course there is a loophole that you only can visit certain websites with that free wifi. I bought about two hours of wifi (all I could afford) to work more and make a few more comments to you guys. Basically, I am just asking if you can bare with me as I try to stay caught up! Even if it is late I will still try to comment to you guys and I hope you do the same! Next week I am also taking off work to work all day on this class! I’ll be back soon!

The Inquiry Project: Week #4

Draft #2: Proposal and Thoughts on Design

I am slightly puzzled about how I should approach this assignment but I will do my best. My most awesome final project design will be put together with the following components I am about to list.

multimedia_storytelling-mainMy research topic question is, how is 3-D printing able to revolutionize the medical field and save numerous lives? I am studying 3-D printing because I want to find out why it is going to be a critical element to the medical field in order to help my readers understand its importance for the future of health care. Based off of this information I want to format my paper in chronological order of past, present, and future. I want to start off by focusing on the dull beginning of 3-D printing and the medical field, and have them intersect. Then I will continue on to talk about the successes today and its possibilities in the future. In my writing I will also include informative videos, quote doctors, engineers, scientists, etc., and include a lot of links. Overall I want this to look a lot like an interactive Facebook feed of pictures and videos with words filling in the spaces.

Newspaper+Writing+TemplateIn regards to the design of my final research paper I found these Multimedia Stories, which I have never seen before and were very unique. It might be too much for an Inquiry Project Final paper but I hope to incorporate some of the ideas from these stories. I want my paper to be just as interactive yet informative. Another online page design I found is this one about Bioprinting. The design is quite simple but still follows the fact that I want there to be a lot of interesting pictures that make you want to read more.

Voice-Dictation-Apple

A great representation of design and more importantly writing voice would be this article. I really enjoy this article’s style of writing. It is very formal and is written like an article that belongs in a medical magazine. You can also tell it is a very intelligent article because of the vocabulary the author uses. I also like the fact that pictures are meshed in the writing. It is very pleasing to the eye and keeps the reader involve in your writing.

My final Inquiry Project paper is going to be an amazing blend of all the characteristics I talked about and I can not wait to continue designing and formulating my paper!

Concept Experience #4 “Curating an Ultra-rich Enviornment”

v65oai7fxn47qv9nectxMy overview of using Twitter to communicate with my peers goes as follows. I apologize to some of my peers that I did not interact earlier because I was sick earlier this week, but I stepped into the Twitter sphere as soon as possible and got tweeting.

I started out by sending out a tweet to everyone in any class to follow me if they were taking the course. I got a few follows, a retweet and used that to spark my tweets. A few minutes later I started my searched and found three people I thought had similar topics as me. Two of them responded and said that our topics were a little far fetched but we could work together; I am still waiting for the third person to tweet back. After tweeting those three people, and finding dead ends, I resorted to posting a tweet basically asking if anyone had a topic that had to do with the medical field, 3-D printing, or even the integration of technology into the medical field. As a resort I had people tweet me and someone even recommend someone to me.

Here are three tweets that best describe my research topic research so far:

These first tweet represents me reaching out to my other peers after failing to find partners with similar topics. The second tweet is one of the instances where I thought we had compatible topics but in the end did not work out. She was nice enough to offer to work with me but I know our topics were too far off from each other. The third tweet represents one of my successes in finding a partner. She did not have a topic exactly like mine but we could definitely feed off of each other because of the slight resemblance in our topics.

Throughout the week I generally devoted part of my day to being constantly active on Twitter. For the rest of the day I saw my notifications going off but so I could actually focus and keep track of everyone tweeting I saved it for later. When I had some quiet time to myself I replied and was able to stay on top of things.

animation rodneygk gif

To summarize my experience I wold say it was very successful. Other than twitter being filled with a lot of traffic I was able to find what I needed. Twitter provided an instantaneous way to communicate with my peers. In that process I was also able to “spy” on how everyone’s work was coming along. I noticed that a lot of my peers were able to find partners quickly because of their topics. My topic was out of the ordinary compared to my peer’s topics, that is why it was difficult to find partners.

One mistake I made at one point was that I forgot we had to include the #thoughtvectors hashtag in every tweet. Since I used Twitter a lot I just got wrapped up in the conversations and forgot to include it. I will remember from now on though!

In the end I am still waiting for a focusgroupfew people to respond, I have a few potential partners, and I found three people that have formed a group with me. The three people I found are Yusra, Ifrah, and Helen (their Twitter handles are @__yusraahmed, @IfrahAnsari88, and @helensayurikim). I will continue to use Twitter as a speedy communicator and to feed off of my peers ideas.

Research Nugget #2

As I continue my research in 3-D printing’s application to the medical field I am starting to find a lot of “settled” information among my readers. A lot of the “settled” information would basically be all the clean cut facts about 3-D printing, such as how the process goes and what they are able to print today. The debatable information I am starting to encounter are its future possibilities and the controversy over whether to use stem cells or not.

I have chosen these two nuggets to show sort of a love/ hate relationship between the advancement in 3-D printing technology. In this article I chose a nugget, stated by Rebecca Boyle, that highlights on the love/hate relationship.

gd_4“Stem cells are powerful because they can develop into any cell in the body. Embryonic stem cells, which are taken from human embryos in the earliest stages of development, can be developed into stem cell lines that can be grown indefinitely. This is kind of controversial, especially in this country. But medical researchers think they could be hugely promising for a whole host of human ailments–stem cells could differentiate into neurons, potentially replacing the ones lost in degenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s; or they could differentiate into pancreatic cells, curing diabetes; and so on.”

What is stated above by Boyle, represents the hate part of this love/ hate relationship of 3-D printing. As research in 3-D printing continues scientists, engineers, and doctors are bound to hit a roadblock. I think this may be one of those roadblocks because there is so much debate on the use of stem cells for research. It has proven that stem cells are the future of 3-D printing world. Using these stem cells will push advancements in this field even further because of there ability to develop into any cell in the body. It is not necessarily the use that draws all the debate, it is the means of acquiring the stem cells. They have to be extracted from embryonic cells in the early stages when it is at about 150 cells. Lets move onto the love part of the love/ hate relationship of 3-D printing in Brandon Grigg’s article.

130807HAPInfographic02Then there’s the hope that 3-D printers could someday produce much-needed organs for transplants. Americans are living longer, and as we get deeper into old age our organs are failing more. Some 18 people die in the United States each day waiting in vain for transplants because of a shortage of donated organs–a problem that Anthony Atala, director of the Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine and a pioneer in bioprinting, calls “a major health crisis.

Thousands of people are waiting for transplants across the world and as a result about 18 people each day die while waiting for them. Is the sacrifice of a small embryonic cell not enough to save all these patients that are in need of a transplant. This love/ hate relationship has its two sides but it is clear which side this debate should lean towards.

Research Nugget #1

In my first research nugget post I will be focusing on the growth of my research topic. Just to reiterate my research question is, how is 3-D printing able to revolutionize the medical field and save numerous lives? It is a new topic both to me and the medical field that is ever growing as we speak.

First I would like to show 3-D printing’s early impact and growth in this nugget from this article written by truthAtlas.

A few short years ago, 3-D printers began to emerge as a technology that promised to harness the automation and digital precision of computers and translate them into complex physical structures in the real world. No longer bound by dimension or material, we began to see inventive and dynamic new methods of creating objects both strange and familiar. Even now, the wonder and excitement surrounding 3-D printing continues unabated as pioneers equipped with this technology embark on humanitarian missions around the world.

In 3-D printing’s early years it was shown to be a new capability of a computer’s abilities. Engineers were finally able to awaken the three dimensional side of the computer, rather than the ordinary, two dimensional printer. They made it possible to print anything out of plastic that you could put your mind to and create digitally. As pioneers mastered this machine and sought to embark on humanitarian missions around the world, the 3-D printer would be pushed to new limits. The 3-D printer was introduced to the medical field as shown in this article‘s nugget, written by Yona Gidalevitz, where it will answer one of life’s many challenges.

grown kidneys Researchers Claim to Successfully 3D Print Living Kidneys (VIDEO)

This could be a step in the right direction in the world of regenerative medicine, as an incredible number of people die each year from a lack of available organs for transplant. Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine is one of the leading institutions dedicated to research in regenerative medicine, and were the first to successfully grow human organs in the lab. In 2006, they successfully transplanted lab-grown bladders into seven patients. The progress made by Wake Forest in this field, as well as the research being conducted by Xu Mingen et al, portrays a not-so-bleak future in which the number of deaths from a lack of available organ donors could be greatly reduced.

A growing problem that many suffer from might have found its answer. 3-D printing has been thought out to solve the lack of available organ transplants. Although it is not quite there yet, advancements have already been made since the 3-D printer was just printing plastic objects. Working organs are on the forefront of the 3-D printing project and is improving exponentially.

As of now this is one of the many areas 3-D printing has influenced. That was only after a few short years of being introduced. Who knows how far 3-D printing will reach in the next month, year, or decade. For now my journey in research lands and starts on this small branch the expanding 3-D printing world.

Nugget Assignment #4: “Ted Nelson’s Computer Lib/Dream Machines”

Ted Nelson’s writing was written with a tone that was easier to understand but still intellectual. He also illustrates a lot of his concepts, which make it easier to follow his writing. In his writing I chose to focus on the flip side of Computer Lib, Dream Machines. When reading Nelson’s writing I could not find anything pertaining to my research question but I did find something that “spoke to” my research.

“But today, at this moment we can and must design the media, design the molecules of our new water, and I believe the details of this design matter very deeply. They will be with us for a very long time, perhaps as long as man has left; perhaps if they are so good as they can be, man may even buy more time—or the open-ended future most suppose remains.

So in these pages I hope to orient you somewhat to various of the proposed dreams. This meant also to record the efforts of a few Brewster McClouds, each tinkering toward some new flight of fancy in his own sensoarium.

But bear in mind that hard-edged fantasy is the corner of tomorrow. The great American dream often becomes the great American novelty. After which it’s a choice of style, size and financing plan.

The most exciting things here are those that involve computers: notably, because computers will be embraced in every presentational medium and thoughtful medium very soon.”

“Technology is an expression of man’s dreams. If man did not indulge his fantasies, his thoughts alone would inhibit the development of technology itself.”

The nugget above is basically the introduction to my topic. As shown in the past, computers have played a large roll throughout history and has proven to show a great part in our future. In recent advancements the computer proved to be a gateway to new realms of the human race. In my research topic it is the gateway between 3-D printing and the medical field where it is buying more people time to live a healthy life. With a combination of man’s fantasies and the development in technology, such as computers, we are able to print certain body tissues and parts to help people develop normally.

Based off of the comments on my last blog some of my peers did not even know this existed. This “hard-edged fantasy” is in fact developing right around the “corner of tomorrow.” To many of us this does seem to be a fantasy but luckily man did decided to “indulge this fantasies” and make it a reality. This outrageous idea is proving itself to be life changing.