Krugman 2008 Consumer behavior and advertising involvement : selected works of Herbert E. Krugman

  • Citation: Krugman, E. P. (2008). Consumer Behavior and Advertising Involvement: Selected Works of Herbert E. Krugman. New York, NY: Taylor and Francis Group LLC.
  • Main Claim: In this book, Krugman develops a three-step model that he feels fits advertising. He thinks that you need the viewer to actively engage with an advertisement three times in order for them to pursue the advertisement. At any point, the viewer is able to disengage with the advertisement and in turn, they are able to pick up where they left off at any point as well. Advertising is largely based on context and that is something that the advertising companies have less control over but, if they put the advertisement out often, they are more likely to have more people fulfill the three active viewings of their ad.
  • Substantive Source

Nugget #1: “It is important to understand how communication works and how people learn, and to do that some attention has to be given to the difference between one, two and three” (135). Krugman states that understand communication and the transfer of information is very important when dealing with advertising. He suggests that it take roughly three exposures for a viewer to be able to positively be able to recall an ad. Any less and the advertisement wont be remembered and any more may tip the scale and cause a negative recollection of the ad or they just reflect the results of what happened in the first few exposures.


Nugget #2: “The first response is to understand the nature of the stimulus” (136). The first response triggers a yes or no response. It is the first filter that the ad goes through. So, when an advertisement is viewed once the viewer figures out what it is, they determine whether or not its interesting if it is not then they discard the information.


Nugget #3: “The second exposure is the one where personal responses and evaluations – the “sale” so to speak – occurs” (136). The second time a viewer views an advertisement, they first have a more in depth process of what occurred during the first viewing. They begin to understand what the ad is and how it applies to them, why it’s interesting to them and why it is relevant. They also have the moment of understanding that they have seen the ad before. This allows to viewer to pick up where they left off so they do not need to start fresh and understand the basics of the ad again.


Nugget #4: “The third becomes, then, the true reminder – that is, if there is some consequence of the earlier evaluations yet to be fulfilled” (136). When the viewer views the ad for the third time, they first recognize that they have seen the ad before. They know what the ad is and how it applies to them personally. At this point, they make a decision to disengage with the advertisement or pursue it in some way. Whether it be researching what is advertised, purchasing a product, etc.


Nugget #5: “It positions advertising as powerful only when the viewer, the consumer, or shopper is interested and that is largely outside the control of television or advertising” (137). The three-step process is repetitive, if an individual disengages with the ad and sees it for the 15th time and are able to pick up as if it was the second viewing and personally relate to the ad, they will then continue through the process. This can happen at any time, this shows that the context of the advertisement is as important as the repetition.

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