## INSC 310 – TOPIC #6 (Energy, Motion, and Forces)

HOTWHEELS

Scientific Principles:

• Potential Energy: the energy possessed by a body by virtue of its position relative to others, stresses within itself, electric charge, and other factors
• Kinetic Energy: energy that a body possesses by virtue of being in motion

1.) What was the point of this activity?

Introduce potential and kinetic energy and show the impact of gravity and friction.

2.) Explain how you would introduce this to your class.

Kinetic and Potential energy are everyday experiences and have them make a connection to a real world example.

3.) Where do you see a student having difficulty with this?

Deciding the difference between kinetic and potential energy and setting up the activity.

4.) What changes or extensions could you do to this activity?

Having the track already set up so that we can spend more time actually doing the experiment.

SIMPLE MACHINES

Scientific Principles:

• Pulley: a wheel with a grooved rim around which a cord passes. It acts to change the direction of a force applied to the cord and is chiefly used (typically in combination) to raise heavy weights
• Inclined Plane: a plane inclined at an angle to the horizontal.
• Wheel and Axle: a simple lifting machine consisting of a rope that unwinds from a wheel onto a cylindrical drum or shaft joined to the wheel to provide mechanical advantage
• Screw: a short, slender, sharp-pointed metal pin with a raised helical thread running around it and a slotted head, used to join things together by being rotated so that it pierces wood or other material and is held tightly in place
• Lever:  simple machine consisting of a beam or rigid rod pivoted at a fixed hinge, or fulcrum
• Wedge: a piece of wood, metal, or some other material having one thick end and tapering to a thin edge, that is driven between two objects or parts of an object to secure or separate them

1.) What was the point of this activity?

Identifying the difference between all of the simple machines.

2.) Explain how you would introduce this to your class?

Putting different tools on the desk and having the students identify what simple machines they are.

3.) Where do you see a student having difficulty with this?

Students not understanding that everyday tools can be simple machines and that some objects have more than one simple machine within them.

4.) What changes or extensions could you do to this activity?

Having some students identify some simple machines that they see everyday or even have in their house.

## INSC 310 – TOPIC #5 (Chemical Reactions)

TEMPERATURE CHANGE FOR HYDROGEN PEROXIDE CHEMICAL REACTION

Scientific Principles:

• Exothermic Reaction: chemical reaction that releases energy by light or heat
• Endothermic Reaction: process describes the process or reaction in which the system absorbs energy from its surroundings, usually in the form of heat

1.) What was the point of this activity?

To see how long it would take the yeast to react with the hydrogen peroxide.

2.) Explain how you would introduce this to your class.

Using the same method, but bringing in other reactants such as different water temperatures and acid tablets.

3.) Where do you see a student having difficulty with this?

Not understanding why certain materials make the temperature increase or decrease.

4.) What changes or extensions could you do to this activity?

Possibly getting different cups, and adding food coloring and putting a thermometer in each and seeing the difference in temperature.

BUILDING MOLECULES IN A CHEMICAL REACTION

Scientific Principles:

• Molecules: a group of atoms bonded together, representing the smallest fundamental unit of a chemical compound that can take part in chemical reaction
• Chemical Reaction: Process that involves rearrangement of the molecular or ionic structure of a substance, as opposed to a change in physical form or a nuclear reaction

1.) What was the point of this activity?

Understanding that by adding or removing one atom, you could change the entire element.

2.) Explain how you would introduce this to your class?

Same method with the colors. I feel as though it is a great way to grab their attention. I would just make sure I had multiple options like M&Ms or skittles maybe.

3.) Where do you see a student having difficulty with this?

Not understanding where to attach and detach the atoms to a new molecule.

4.) What changes or extensions could you do to this activity?

Adding in different candies to represent the different atoms and having them learn the molecules based on memorization of the color.

## INSC 310 – TOPIC #4 (Properties of Matter – Part II)

BAKING SODA AND VINEGAR

Scientific Principles:

• Chemical Reaction: a process that involves rearrangement of the molecular or ionic structure of a substance, as opposed to a change in physical form or a nuclear reaction

1.) What was the point of this activity?

To demonstrate  chemical reactions and that amounts matter.

2.) Explain how you would introduce this to your class.

By putting baking soda into a balloon and vinegar into a water bottle and recording the reaction.

3.) Where do you see a student having difficulty with this?

I could see a student struggling with measurements because they may not understand the difference.

4.) What changes or extensions could you do to this activity?

I would try using different color baking soda for the amounts so that the students could witness the change for each amount.

POTATO EXPERIMENT

Scientific Principles:

• Diffusion: the intermingling of substances by the natural movement of their particles
• Osmosis: a process by which molecules of a solvent tend to pass through a semipermeable membrane from a less concentrated solution into a more concentrated one, thus equalizing the concentrations on each side of the membrane

1.) What was the point of this activity?

To show if it is more natural for things to mix or separate.

2.) Explain how you would introduce this to your class?

I would introduce this using the same experiment, with maybe a different vegetable, such as a carrot.

3.) Where do you see a student having difficulty with this?

Not understanding why the salt dissolved.

4.) What changes or extensions could you do to this activity?

I would use sugar instead of salt with food coloring.

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