Category Archives: UNIV-200-008-2014

WRITING & RHETORIC WORKSHOP II

Working on my voice

In the paper, “Cosmetics: They Influence More Than Caucasian Female Facial Attractiveness“, published in the Journal of Applied Social Psychology, the authors statistically evaluated responses of over 300 subjects to 8 photographs of women taken with and without makeup. Women presented wearing cosmetics were perceived as healthier and more confident than when presented without. Participants also perceived women wearing cosmetics with a greater earning potential and with more prestigious jobs than the same women without cosmetics. The study concluded that women can employ cosmetics to manipulate their appearance and reap up possible benefits, such as being successful at a job interview or negotiating higher salary. By wearing makeup they may also benefit from a boost in positive self-perception and well-being that appears to be associated with wearing makeup. The paper Enhanced female attractiveness with use of cosmetics and male tipping behavior in restaurants, published in the Journal of Cosmetic Science, investigated male tipping behavior. This was a field study, as apposed to my two previous examples that were conducted in a laboratory setting. One waitress was used in 15 week study, alternatively having a natural look and makeup look. The study confirmed the suspected outcome, that is that male patrons gave tips more often to a waitress who wore makeup and that when they did so they gave her a larger amount of money and that both male and female patrons found the waitress to be more attractive when wearing makeup. The authors also found that there was no difference in tipping patterns of female patrons.

These two academic studies, one theoretical and one practical, both clearly support the idea that wearing make-up have a positive impact on women’s career, and therefore yield a positive answer to question 1). The second paper presents a specific example how wearing makeup lead to higher earnings, but also indicates that gender will play a distinctive role in the study. Notice that all the extra money for the waitress came from male patrons. Would my grandmother read these papers, she would just wave her hand and say: “These academics are just wasting whoever’s money is paying them, to investigate questions that any 12 year old can answer.” She would say: “If your manager is a man, wear makeup, if she is a women be careful with makeup.” This is common sense. As for the tipping experiment — any grown up women (or man) (maybe even a 12 year old 🙂 ) would predict the outcome correctly, am I right? This said, there are limitations and wearing too much makeup can actually hurt you. Heavy makeup is often associated with a very old profession and may be turn off especially if you are applying for or trying to get promoted to a position that requires some brain power (see here). But again, this is common sense.

“Real Estate” Search

For my final project I choice to publish it at wordpress.com. I got used to using the tools on this site. I think that the site is appropriate for the this project. WordPress blogs can be easily edited and the site is very reliable in saving documents. My page is quite simple and direct. I think keeping keeping it minimal will capture audience attention rather than confusing them with too many unnecessary colors and borders.

Inquiry project — partial draft

Do all women agree that wearing make-up has positive impact on women’s career, improves her relationship with a partner and boosts her self-esteem?

I am sure that the answer is “no” to all three questions in the title, since, for each of these questions, I can find at least one women in the world whose answer would be “no”. Instead, I will focus on what’s the majority’s opinion. So let me first rephrase my questions:

1) Does wearing make-up have mostly positive impact on women’s career?

2) Does wearing make-up mostly boost self-esteem of the wearer?

3) Does wearing make-up improve woman’s relationship with her partner?

I have found numerous scholarly articles, online publications and blogs whose answers to the questions 1) and 2) is yes. The answers to question 3) are almost evenly split between yes and no. So this may be the most interesting question of our investigation. There are several related questions whose answer may shed light on the ambiguity of the answer to the third question.

3a) Do men in general find women wearing makeup more attractive?

From my research so far, it seems that the answer to 3a) is yes. So the question that comes naturally is why many men don’t like their girlfriends/wives wearing makeup when most of them prefer (are attracted to) women with makeup. The answer could range from jealousy (he is attracted to sexy women and wants her to be less sexy by not wearing makeup you know the old american song: “If you want to be happy for the rest of your life, make an ugly woman your wife” 🙂 ) to being concern about their partner’s well being or need for intimacy (make makes her alienated). This brings up naturally two more questions:

3b) How healthy or unhealthy is makeup for your completion?

3c) Are there distinctive psychological traits of men who answered “yes” and those who answered “no” to the question: “Do you prefer your girlfriend/wife wearing makeup?”

Questions 1) and 2)

For instance, in the paper, Cosmetics: They Influence More Than Caucasian Female Facial Attractiveness, published in the Journal of Applied Social Psychology, the authors statistically evaluated responses of over 300 subjects to 8 photographs of women taken with and without makeup. Women presented wearing cosmetics were perceived as healthier and more confident than when presented without. Participants also perceived women wearing cosmetics with a greater earning potential and with more prestigious jobs than the same women without cosmetics. The study concluded that women can employ cosmetics to manipulate their appearance and reap up possible benefits, such as being successful at a job interview or negotiating higher salary. By wearing makeup they may also benefit from a boost in positive self-perception and well-being that appears to be associated with wearing makeup. In another study Relation between facial morphology, personality and the functions of facial make-up in women, published in the International Journal of Cosmetic Science, the investigators concerned themselves with the study of relations between specific emotional and psychological profiles and the use of makeup. In an experiment, sixty-two Caucasian female subjects, that use makeup daily, were divided into two distinct groups depending whether they use makeup for camouflage (group C) of seduction (group S). Women in group S had mostly high self-esteem, high assertiveness and low anxiety, while women in group C had mostly low self-esteem, low assertiveness and high anxiety. The results of this article suggest that make-up is used differently, depending on psychological profiles of women, to manipulate their facial features to enhance their attractiveness, but in each case make-up supplication makes the wearer feel better about herself which leads to higher self-esteem of the subject. Yet another paper, Enhanced female attractiveness with use of cosmetics and male tipping behavior in restaurants, published in the Journal of Cosmetic Science, investigated male tipping behavior. This was a field study, as apposed to my two prvious examples that were condusted in a laboratory setting. One waitress was used in 15 week study, alternatively having a natural look and makeup look. The study confirmed the suspected outcome, that is that male patrons gave tips more often to a waitress who wore makeup and that when they did so they gave her a larger amount of money and that both male and female patrons found the waitress to be more attractive when wearing makeup.

These three scholarly papers give overwhelming evidence that the answer to questions 1) and 2) is yes. This answer is further supported by many online publications (to be continued)
and common sense (“my grandma knew the answers before they were scientifically proved” – to be continued)

I have decided to share some personal experiences with makeup. When I was younger, I didn’t like make up. I was against it because I thought it alters the a natural beauty of women. I did not realize the importance of make up until we moved to the Middle East. People here pay much more attention to their looks than people in the US. How you look is very important here, because you will be treated according to your looks. Women wearing designer clothes, shoes hand bags, expensive watches are treated better. Also Caucasian people are treated better that Asian people or people from Africa. I experienced it first-hand. When I am went shopping without make-up people treat me as if I was a maid. I don’t want to go into details, but believe me, it is not a nice experience. When I started to put on makeup, things changed significantly. Especially when I did a make-up that changed my face completely so that I looked Caucasian (I ended up looking like a Lebanese 🙂 ). So, looking back at those times when I did not wear make-up, I now realize I would have been much more successful if I was wearing makeup. Makeup can not only help you to conceal imperfections of your face, but also help to conceal emotions that you don’t want to reveal to the outside. For instance, during the interview for a position at MAC Cosmetics I was wearing full make up. I was very nervous and stressed and without make-up I would look like as white as a sheet of paper. But, because I had face drenched with make-up complemented with a strong red lipstick, I was able to hide my fears behind my make-up mask, like an actor in Old Greece hides used to hide his face behind a mask. So, using this mask, I was able to project a strong persona with mega self-confidence to the hiring manager and, of course, I got the job as a makeup artist 🙂 . Since that day, I started loving make up. I became to think of my makeup as a shield. It was a mask under which I can hide, and I can be someone else, a tougher and stronger person, who will not be so easily hurt.

Questions 3) (under construction)

In this blog post a women complains that her husband is upset that she stopped wearing makeup on Sundays after 22 years of marriage and that “he is worried that this is the beginning of a “downward spiral” for her into a messy, slobby woman with permanent razor stubble.”

In the blog post “My Boyfriend Likes Me Better without Makeup,” a women states that her boyfriend prefers her natural look. Furthermore, she states that “Men hit on me more often and women complimented my complexion.”

In her interview with Harper’s Bazaar Gwen Stefani‘s said: “I like to make my husband like me more, and he likes it when I’m wearing makeup.

Concept Experience #6

1) It has been shown through research that feelings displayed on Facebook are contagious. If you see more positive posts than negative posts, then you start posting more positive posts as well.

This internet provides very little information about the paper and no information about the institutions that were involved in this study. The hyperlink “research” does not lead to the study — it leads to a different article instead.The hyperlink “contagious” is not needed. The last sentence is incorrect.

2) There have been studies done on Facebook and all the emotions related to posts. “We have enough power in this data set to show that emotional expressions spread online and also that positive expressions spread more than negative.”

This internet text does not provide enough information about the paper and about the institutions that were involved in this study. There is also no link to the paper. The hyperlink “positive expressions” is irrelevant.

3) Researchers in a new study have found that feelings displayed on Facebook are contagious. They found enough data to show that “emotional expressions spread online and also that positive expressions spread more than negative.”

This internet text provides only very brief information about the paper and no information about the institutions that were involved in this study. The hyperlink does not lead to the study — it leads to a different article instead.

4) In a new study, researchers from University of California, San Diego have found that feelings displayed on Facebook are contagious. Publishing a paper in the journal PLOS ONE, the team analyzed over a billion anonymous status updates from more than 100 million Facebook subscribers across the United States and found that positive posts beget positive posts and negative posts beget negative posts. They said that while both are common on the site, the positive posts are more influential. They concluded, “We have enough power in this data set to show that emotional expressions spread online and also that positive expressions spread more than negative.”

This internet text provides information about the team who conducted the research, gives more details about the study, provides the magnitude of the sample and clearly state the results. It also provides links to the paper and the web page of the journal where the paper appeared. More details and correct links make #4 more effective than #3.

Research nugget #6

Article citation:Enhanced female attractiveness with use of cosmetics and male tipping behavior in restaurants, N., Jacob C., J. Cosmet. Sci, 62, 283-290 (May/June 2011).
Link to article: http://nicolas.gueguen.free.fr/Articles/JCS2011.pdf

Summary
Previous studies concluded that women wearing makeup were rated as being cleaner, more tidy, more feminine, and more physically attractive. The intent of this paper was to explore the effect of makeup on individual behavior as contrasted with previous research in which impression formation of facial attractiveness was evaluated in a laboratory. In particular, tipping behavior was used to evaluate the impact of cosmetics. Previous studies showed that diners left larger tips for those waitresses who wore flowers in their hair, or those exhibiting larger smiles. This was particularly true for men rather than for women. Based on previous literature, the authors hypothesized that waitresses’ make-up would increase tipping behavior. Three random variables were examined: the frequency of tips, the amount of tips and the attractiveness of the waitress. Samples from these random variables were subjected to statistical analysis and the conclusions of this analysis confirmed that male patrons gave tips more often to a waitress who wore makeup and that when they did so they gave her a larger amount of money. On the other hand no difference was found in tipping by female patrons when tipping the waitress with or without makeup. The study found no significant difference between attractiveness ratings of the waitress by male and female patrons — both sexes found the waitress to be more attractive when wearing makeup.

Nugget1

This nugget describes, in detail, the setup of the experiment. The experiment that the authors conducted involved 112 single male customers, 62 single female customers, one waitress who was serving meals with and without make-up. The experiment took place in one restaurant in France, where tipping is not usual because a service charge of 12% is added to the bill. It had a duration of 30 days. The tips to the waitress were recorded and the patrons were asked to rate the attractiveness of the waitress on the scale 0 to 9. There are some obvious limitations of this experiment. That the authors used only one waitress and one restaurant is the most significant weakness of the experiment. Otherwise, it seems that the authors tried their best in maintaining objectivity of the experiment.

Nugget #2

This nugget summarizes the findings of the study. The article confirmed the initial expectation of the authors that male patrons gave tips more often to a waitress when she was wearing makeup than when she did not wore one. Also the tips were larger when the waitress was wearing makeup. The authors also reported that there was no significant difference in tipping by female patrons when tipping the waitress with or without makeup. Both male and female patrons considered the waitress more attractive when wearing makeup. But wearing makeup was positively correlated with frequency of tipping and amounts of tips only for male patrons. For female patrons, wearing makeup and frequency of tipping, and wearing makeup and amount of money tipped, seem to be independent.

In relation to the paper examined in Nugget #4, Cosmetics: They Influence More Than Caucasian Female Facial Attractiveness, this paper reconfirms, that in the special case of a waitress, wearing makeup can be financially beneficial to women. It also provides a partial positive answer to my research claim:

Do all women agree that wearing make-up has positive impact on women’s career, improves her relationship with a partner and boosts her self-esteem?

Ebsco Host Tutorial Work

screenshoot2

screenshoot1

1) Do all women agree that wearing make-up has positive impact on women’s career, improves her relationship with a partner and boosts her self-esteem and confidence?

2) I searched for “wearing make-up AND self-esteem AND confidence.”

3) The article that I will probably use are article #4, “Look More Lovable,” and article #5, “The Effect of Make-up On Perceived Competency,” because both of these articles conclude that make-up helps women not only to look better but also boost their self-confidence and self-esteem.

Research nugget #2: Pancreatic cancer

The following nugget is a prognoses for pancreatic cancer, taken from the online publication “Pancreatic cancer.”

“For all stages combined, the 1-year relative survival rate is 25%, and the 5-year survival is estimated as less than 5% to 6%.
For local disease, the 5-year survival is approximately 20%.
For locally advanced and for metastatic disease, which collectively represent over 80% to 85-90% of individuals, the median survival is about 10 and 6 months, respectively. Without active treatment, metastatic pancreatic cancer has a median survival of 3–5 months; complete remission is very rare.”

As is is clear from the nugget, pancreatic cancer strikes fast and is a deadly disease. It cause about 330,000 deaths worldwide in 2012 and it is the seventh most common cause of deaths due to cancer (fourth in the US). 43,000 people in the US were diagnosed with pancreatic cancer and 37,000 died from it. Pancreatic cancer has one of the highest fatality rates of all cancers. It accounts for only 2.5% of new cases but is responsible for 6% of cancer deaths each year. The disease occurs more often in the developed world, where about 68% of new cases occur. `it is almost never detected in its early stages. Pancreatic cancer often has a poor prognosis, even when diagnosed early. It usually spreads rapidly, which is a main reason of it’s a low survival rates. Signs and symptoms may not appear until pancreatic cancer is in the metastasis stage and is surgically irremovable.

In my Research nugget #1, I have discussed ovarian cancer, which is also a very effective killer. Pancreatic and ovarian cancers have lots in common.

Symptoms
Both ovarian and pancreatic cancers are hard to detect. Signs and symptoms are frequently absent in early stages and when they exist they may be subtle. Therefore, these cancers is often misdiagnosed until they are in advanced stages. Most common symptoms include: abdominal or pelvic pain, heartburn, loss of appetite or nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, involuntary weight loss, back pain and tiredness.

Prognosis
For the pancreatic cancer the prognosis was discussed in the nugget.
The five-year survival rate for all stages of ovarian cancer is 47%. For cases where a diagnosis is made early in the disease, when the cancer is still confined to the primary site, the five-year survival rate is 92.7%.

Genetics
Both cancers are linked to mutations in BRCA2 gene whose mutations also increases risk of breast cancer.

Diagnosis
Occurrences of both cancers are effectively through specialized blood tests and CT scans. Until recently these tests were very expensive and therefore rarely used. See here for a recent breakthrough (mentioned also in my previous posts).

Research Nugget #1: Ovarian Cancer

The following nugget is from the online publication “How to recognize the symptoms of ovarian cancer

Ovarian cancer has been overlooked for a long, long time – it’s been put into the ‘too difficult’ box,’ says Annwen Jones, chief executive of the target Ovarian cancer charity. “There has been a vicious circle: it’s typically diagnosed at a late stage so we have had poor survival rates and, as a result, there’s been little awareness of the disease and therefore very little funding for research. We desperately need to break that circle.”
The main problem is its symptoms: persistent bloating, abdominal or pelvic pain, urinary and/or bowel problems and difficulty in eating.
Taken on its own, each sign could easily indicate some other medical problem. In fact, 30 per cent of sufferers are misdiagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome. It’s only when the symptoms are pieced together that a diagnosis is made easier. For years, ovarian cancer was known as a silent killer, which really frustrates campaigners. “there are clear symptoms,” says Jones. “You just have to know about them.”

Unlike breast cancer, that many are familiar with, only 3% of women in the UK can identify symptoms of ovarian cancer . The symptoms of an ovarian cancer, as described in the nugget above, are often misdiagnosed. One patient notes:

“I thought there was no way it could be cancer – I hadn’t been losing weight, my periods were still regular and I had mistakenly assumed if you had clear smear tests you were fine. It was only later I learned that smear tests will only detect cervical cancer, not ovarian cancer.”

This clearly demonstrates how many women underestimate ovarian cancer. Much of current research is focused on early detection. One promising direction is to focus on so called biomarkers. All diseases have proteins, or concentrations of proteins, specifically linked to them called biomarkers. Identifying biomarkers is a powerful diagnostic tool. Antibodies can be used to test for specific biomarkers because they only bind to specific molecules or groups of molecules. Problems can arise when they bind to groups of similar molecules, leading to false positives and unreliable information.In practice this can be very costly and unreliable method. Jack Andraka delivered a recent breakthrough by finding one particular protein that serves as a biomarker for pancreatic, lung and ovarian cancers and constructing an ingenious testing device for these cancers by utilizing carbon nanotubes, that is extremely cheap, fast, effective and minimally invasive.