Jailyn Williams Week 16b SOCY305

What has changed since the collapse of Jim Crow has less to do with the basic structure of our society than with the language we use to justify it. In the era of colorblindness, it is no longer socially permissible to use race, explicitly, as a justification for discrimination, exclusion, and social contempt. Rather than rely on race, we use our criminal justice system to label people of color “criminals” and then engage in all the practices we say we left behind. Today it is perfectly legal to discriminate against criminals in nearly all the ways that it once was legal to discriminate against African Americans. Once you are a felon, the old forms of discrimination –employment, housing, denial of the right to vote, denial of educational opportunity, denial of food stamps and other public benefits, and exclusion from jury service –are suddenly legal. The author claims that we have not ended racial caste in American, we have merely redesigned it.

Studies show that people of all colors use and sell illegal drugs at similar rates. Whites, particularly white youth, are more likely to engage in drug crime than people of color. Drug crime was declining, not rising, when the drug war was declared. The lack of correlation between crime and punishment is nothing new. Governments decide how much punishment they want, and these decisions are in no way related to crime rates. Although crime rates in the United States has not been markedly higher than those of other Western countries, incarceration has soared in the United States while it has remained stable or declined in other countries.

The American penal system has emerged as a system of social control unparalleled in world history. The primary targets of its control can be defined largely by race. The National Advisory Commission on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals, which issued a recommendation in 1973 that “no new institutions for adults should be built and existing institutions for juveniles should be closed. This recommendation was based on their finding that “the prison, the reformatory and the jail have achieved only a shocking record of failure. There is overwhelming evidence that these institutions create crime rather than prevent it.” The attention of civil rights advocates has been largely devoted to other issues, such as affirmative action. The struggle to preserve affirmative action in higher education, and maintain diversity in the nations most elite colleges and universities, has consumed much of the attention and resources of the civil rights community and dominated racial justice discourse in the mainstream media, leading the general public to believe that affirmative action is the main battlefront in U.S race relations –even as our prisons fill with black and brown men.

Far from fading away, it appears that prisons are here to stay. And despite the unprecedented levels of incarceration in the African American community, the civil rights community is oddly quiet. One in three young African American men is currently under the control of the criminal justice system –in prison, in jail, on probation, or on parole –yet mass incarceration tends to be categorized as a criminal justice issue as opposed to a racial issue or civil rights issue.

What is key to understanding Americas understanding of class is the persistent belief –despite all evidence to the contrary –that anyone, with the proper discipline and drive, can move from a lower class to a higher class. We recognize that mobility may be difficult, but the key to our collective self image is that the assumption that mobility is always possible, so failure to move up reflects on one’s character. By extension, the failure of a race or ethnic group to move up reflects very poorly on the group as a whole. The recent decisions by some state legislatures, most notably New York’s, to repeal or reduce mandatory drug sentencing laws have led some to believe that the system of racial control is fading away. This is not true. Many of the states that have reconsidered their harsh sentencing schemes have done so not out of concern for the lives and families that have been destroyed by these laws or racial dimensions of the drug war, but out of concern for busting states budgets in a time of economic recession.

This book is intended to stimulate a much needed conversation about the role of the criminal justice system in creating and perpetrating racial hierarchy in the United States. The fate of millions of people –indeed the future of the black community itself –may depend on the willingness of those who care about racial justice to re-examine their basic assumptions about the role of the criminal justice system in our society.

Jailyn Williams Week 16 SOCY 305

The U.S prison population, incarceration in all types of institutions from county jails to the new supermax prisons, has grown exponentially. Jails exist to fill three primary functions. Jails hold inmates who 1. Are awaiting trail and either cannot make bail or have been denied bail, 2. Are required to make a court appearance for any reason –this is because jails are connected to court-houses, whereas prisons generally are not; and 3. Are serving sentences of 364 days or less. Prisons are administered at both the state and federal level. State prisons hold inmates who 1. Are convicted of state crimes in that state; 2. Have sentences of more than 1 year; and 3. Are of all custody levels: minimum, medium, maximum, and death row. Private prisons are administered by corporations. The largest, Corrections Association of America (CAA), trades on the New York Stock Exchange. In 2005, CAA’s total revenues were $1.2 billion.

“Total Institutions” was coined by Goffman. The definition of total institutions is “their encompassing or total character is symbolized by the barrier to social intercourse with the outside and to departure that is often built right into the physical plant, such as locked doors, high walls, barbed wire, cliffs, water forests, or moors.” The central feature of total institutions can be described as a breakdown of the barriers ordinarily separating these three spheres of life. Goffman identifies four specific features of total institutions: First, all aspects of life are conducted in the same place and under the same central authority. Second, the members daily activity is carried on in the company of a large group of others who are treated alike and do the same things. Third, all phases of the day’s activities are tightly scheduled and finally, various enforced activities are brought together into a single rational plan designed to fulfill the official aims of the institution.

Richard Nixon added the position of “Drug Czar” to the president’s executive office. The war on drugs was no so much about criminalizing substances, it was about putting stiffer sentencing guidelines that required 1. Longer sentences, 2. Mandatory minimums, and 3. Moving some drug offenses from the misdemeanor category to the felony category, and 4. Instituting the “Three Strikes You’re Out” policy. Currently, 450,000 of the more than 2 million inmates (45%) in state and federal prison are incarcerated for nonviolent drug offenses. Whites implicitly or explicitly, benefit from the mass incarceration of African Americans. One benefit is that the high levels of incarceration effectively remove these men from the competitive labor force, upon release, they are disenfranchised in the political system. Thus, whites can hoard jobs and political power for themselves. Second, advantage can accrue to communities. The number of prisons as well as the locating of prisons in industrialized communities and rural communities is an economic advantage that accrues to whites in the form of jobs –as prison staff –and in terms of building contracts and other services that are necessary when a town builds a prison.

Women constitute 6%-10% of the prison population, or of the 2.6 million Americans who are incarcerated, 150,000 or so are women. Gender differences in incarceration are primarily related to reproductive health, childbearing, and childrearing. Of the 2.6 million Americans who are incarcerated, one million are African American. Nearly 1 out of 3 African American men will be incarcerated during their lifetimes. African American men and women have much higher rates of incarceration than any other racial/ethnic group, especially when compared to the rates for white Americans. There are many beliefs, myths, and stereotypes that are invoked to explain these differences. African Americans commit more crime is one of them. However, just as African Americans are disproportionately likely to commit certain crimes, whites are disproportionately likely to commit others. Another popular stereotype is that African Americans Mothers Are Crack heads. It targets poor African American mothers by saying that they are addicted to both welfare and crack. As a result, they are treated more harshly by social service agencies and the criminal justice system when they do use drugs. Stereotypes such as this are powerful in shaping the kinds of behavior that affect the overall incarceration rates of African Americans and whites.

Another myth is about the unregulated nature of African American male sexuality. This myth led to the widespread belief that African American men were propelled toward the desire to rape white women. Because whites believed this, the protection of white women fell to white men and it was a duty that they took seriously. Thousands of African American men were accused of raping white women, but they were lynched by mobs long before they were ever tried in court. The power of this accusation without the requirement of evidentiary support provided the justification for the vast majority of the lynching’s of 10,000 African American men during the time period of 1880 and 1930.

Jailyn Williams Week 15 SOCY305

Poverty is one of the most important and pressing issues facing African American families. Poverty shapes many of the experiences of African Americans, from their experiences with marriage and childbearing, to violence in their intimate relationships, to their experiences with health and health care, and finally, to their experiences with education. Wages are the primary source of income for individuals and families. Yet income is only part of the equation when we consider access to the American Dream (via wealth). Wage workers are generally more familiar with their income in terms of dollars per hour, whereas salaried and professional employees are generally more familiar with their income expressed as their monthly salary.Wealth is the total value of one’s assets minus the cumulation of one’s debts. The problem with the way that wealth has been measured in the past is because the median income measure masks the incredible disparity at the top of the income distribution.

Occupations remain highly race and sex segregated, and that one of the most important and significant outcomes of occupational segregation, resulting from legacy, blocked access, discrimination, and inadequate preparation, educational attainment, is disparities in income. The difference in median household income for African Americans and whites is 62%. African Americans are twice as likely to be poor as whites. This is because of the history of slavery and Jim Crow segregation, whites have been able to work in the professions, build businesses, and accumulate wealth over several hundred years. Whereas African Americans have been able to do so only recently. Second, among the affluent who work for a living – the professional classes –as opposed to those living on an inheritance –African Americans are more likely to have come from lower and middle-class backgrounds than their white counterparts, and thus, they have had to personally invest more in preparing for entry into their professions.

The explanation for the difference of wealth verses welfare between African Americans and Whites lies in the predatory lending practices that target the poor and, disproportionately, African Americans. Poor African Americans hold, on average, $57 in assets compared to $24,000 (a gap of 420 times) held by their white counterparts. Because the poor live on the proverbial economic edge, living paycheck to paycheck, any emergency, be it medical, a layoff, a short trip to jail, or even something as routine as having to miss a shift at work because the baby-sitter is sick, can plunge these families over the edge, into homelessness. Many African American families live every day with severe threats to their very existence.

There are four key components to the “American Dream” 1. Owning a single family home, 2. Being able to afford quality child care, 3. Being able to afford a college education for one’s children, and 4. Being able to afford full health insurance. The dream that was within reach of working Americans during the 20th century is out of reach for all but the affluent in the 21st century. Through much of the 20th century, working families, even those working at the bottom of the salary ladder, could afford a portion of what they call the American Dream. A conscientious working family could achieve the American Dream in 1973 by taking on a few extra hours at work, saving carefully, and so on. Today, the typical working-class family living on two minimum wage incomes earns less than half of what is necessary to achieve the American Dream. The inability to buy into the American Dream, especially buying a home, has significant consequences for wealth attainment.

Homeownership is one of the most important elements of the American Dream because it is so central to the definition of the American Dream and because it is one of the most common forms of wealth. Disparities in rates of homeownership are a powerful illustration of differential access to the American Dream. African Americans face discrimination with regard to access housing. Discrimination includes red-lining –refusing to show or sell homes in predominately white neighborhoods to African Americans –refusing to rent or sell to African Americans, and unfair mortgage practices. The primary victims of housing discrimination in the Untied States are racial minorities and especially Hispanics and African Americans. African Americans face discrimination in lending practices as well, especially when they are looking to borrow money for mortgages. As a result of predatory mortgage practices, African Americans lose upwards of $25 billion annually. Borrowers of color are more likely to get a higher rate, subprime home loans –even with the same qualifications as white borrowers.


Jailyn Williams SOCY305 Week 13

Denying African Americans access to education has been a fundamental part of their experience in the United States. The prohibition against teaching African Americans to read was a primary mechanism to keep slaves on the plantation. After emancipation, freed black slaves began setting up schools all over the South. Before this the South never established a public school system. Wealthy whites, not wanting to pay taxes for public education, just sent their kids to private schools in the Northeast to be educated. They did not send them for postsecondary education. Soon after African Americans set up their schools, African American children began to outpace poor whites in terms of education. The white’s response was to establish a public school system for poor whites so that they would not fall behind African Americans. Their system of education was of course segregated and would be challenged regularly until the historic Brown vs. The Board of Education.

The Brown decision, which guaranteed African Americans the right to attend any public school, was intended to offer access to the institution of education in the United States. It has only been partially successful. The Supreme Court decision was resisted in the deep South. Many southern school districts were not integrated until the early 1970’s, almost 20 years after the decision. The most severe resistance was in Mississippi. The resistance movement resulted in the development of a set of private, religious affiliated, academies that were not required by the Brown decision to integrate. The development of “segregated academies” has been the most successful of all strategies employed to resist integration, and it continues today. Over the past 15 years, there has been a 13% decline in integration. African American children today attend schools that are more segregated than the schools their parents attended. Even though minority enrollment in public schools is now nearly 40% nationwide, a typical white student attends a public school that is 80% white. Separate education is never equal.

With this long history of a struggle for equal education, it is not surprising that education still remains unequal for African Americans. There is a wide disparity in the graduation rates of white and minority students, especially with regard to the type of diploma earned. There is also a significant race/ethnic difference in the percentage of students who leave high school eligible for college admission. These differences in high school graduation rates translate into a series of parallel problems. First, the high school degree or its equivalent remains a requirement for many jobs that pay above minimum wage. This means not having a high school diploma means one will be eligible for only the lowest paying jobs in the service sector. Second, if the quality of high school education differs then the opportunities to pursue postsecondary education will differ.

One of the major systems of exclusion is the system of legacy. Most colleges and universities offer preferential admission to applicants whose parents, grandparents, or other relatives are alumni. The preference for legacies can be considered the ultimate in affirmative action, precisely because it gives preference based on status rather than qualifications. Also, legacy is a benefit that accrues to whites, and white men in particular. Legacies are associated with institutions that refused admission to African Americans just until recently so, African Americans have been locked out of legacy preferences.

Work and the economy are important parts of any discussion on family life. Work is something that African Americans have always done but, the myth of laziness still remains. African American women and men have been portrayed in every possible medium, including motion pictures, across all time periods from slavery to freedom, as lazy, shiftless, and incompetent. This ridiculous stereotype comes from things like the slave master having to whip African Americans to work and resistance from pregnant slaves, in the ending stages of labor, to work fueled the stereotype.

It is true, occupations are highly segregated by race and gender. When we think of medical doctors, lawyers, investment bankers, and college professors, most Americans see images of white men. When we think of teachers and secretaries, we think of white women. When we think of garbage collectors and road crews, we think of African American men, and when we think of food service workers, cleaning ladies, and especially in the south, nannies, we think of African American women.

Industry segregation is the fact that there are gendered and racialized jobs. In other words, there are jobs that African American men do, jobs that white women do, and so on. This is the type of segregation with which most people are familiar. Establishment segregation is the segregation within otherwise integrated occupations. For an example, if you sit down in a café, you will most likely be served by a white woman but, if you go to an upscale restaurant in a major city you will most likely be served by a white male.

It is true, recidivism rates are not related to employment. Women believe that there is  no reason for them to marry the men they were involved with did not have a job. There was no reason for them to marry because they wont gain the typical advantages that come to married women via their husband’s salaries. Unemployment creates an economic power imbalance in the household. When the unemployed person is the male, there is often an attempt to re-establish the power differential and restore masculinity.  When the woman out earn their husbands, the men do less housework and the woman does more in an attempt to re-establish what the couple sees as the “normal” gendered power balance. Beating up a female partner is another way to restore their masculinity.



Jailyn Williams Listening to the soundscape #4

Tuesday November 7th 2017

2:00 pm

cold and rainy

50 degrees

I sat outside in my same spot at the same time. It is very gloomy outside with light rain. It smelled so fresh and the wind was so cold it felt sharp.  There were very few people outside because of the rain. The few people that walked by were in raincoats walking super fast and I did not hear any cellphones ringing. There were not many cars passing by so, I heard no horns.

Jailyn Williams SOCY305 Week 12

Despite living in the most advanced economy in the world with the most advanced health care system in the world, many Americans live with chronic disease and health crises that are similar to those of citizens in developing nations. Even within the United States, health and illness are not distributed randomly; in fact, African Americans are more likely to suffer from chronic diseases, lack access to health care, and die earlier than their white counterparts. Its important to consider these racial disparities in health and life expectancy within the context of the U.S system of health care. Access to this system of health care is significantly shaped by race and social class. AIDS is now the leading cause of death among blacks aged 25 to 44, greater than homicide, heart disease, and accidents combined. The disease, long associated with white gay males, is slowly devastating black communities, claiming more men, women, and children everyday. The leading cause of death for Americans, regardless of race and gender, is heart disease. Heart disease is the only major disease in which the rate of death is higher for whites than for African Americans. This is driven primarily by the extraordinarily high rates of heart disease among white men. With the exception of heart disease among white men, African Americans experience higher rates of each of the most prevalent chronic diseases and higher mortality rates as a result of these diseases.

In June 2005, the FDA approved a drug called BiDil to treat cardiovascular disease specifically in African Americans. 700,000 African Americans have chronic heart disease and they seem somewhat less likely to respond to traditional therapies. The development of BiDil relies on DNA or genetic coding. The pharmacology is based on the fact that an individual’s genetic makeup will make him or her less or more receptive to specific drug therapies. After cardiovascular disease, diabetes ranks as the next most significant chronic disease among Americans. African Americans are 1.6 times more likely to have diabetes than whites of similar age. The rate of diabetes is important because it is related to so many other diseases. Patients with diabetes are 2 to 4 times more likely to develop heart disease and 4 to 6 times more likely to suffer a stroke, and they account for 60% of all non-trauma-related amputations.

HIV/AIDS is an important health issue facing the African American community for a variety of reasons. First, it is the leading cause of death of all African American men and women, and it is the leading cause of death among young African Americans aged 15-44. Second, it is a preventable form of death. Third, it is directly linked to other issues like sexual practice and incarceration. Lastly, the rate of HIV/AIDS in the African American community can be examined not just as an outcome, but also as a symptom of other issues of well being: drug use, poverty, and sexual practices such as multiple sex partners and the “down low”. African American men report at least three reasons for being on the DL, male to male prostitution, habitual mean heaving sex with men, MSM behavior begins in prison and may or may not be continued after release, and the desire to “reject a homosexual identity and maintain a façade of heterosexuality within African American culture, where homosexuality is a highly stigmatized identity”.

More than half a million African Americans are HIV positive. Black males are more likely to contract HIV from IV drug use than their white counterparts and less likely to contract HIV through sexual contact with an infected male. African American women are more likely to contract HIV through sex with an infected male partner than their white counterparts and less likely to contract HIV through all other modes of transmission than their white counterparts. This is also the most common form of transmission of HIV/AIDS for Black women.

The fifth leading cause of death for African American men is homicide. Both HIV/AIDS deaths and homicide often result in children being put into foster care or being raised by their grandmothers, aunts, or other relatives. Premature death is disruptive to family life and frequently results in both poverty and a significant change in family structure. This can also affect the health of the children. One measure of health and well-being is the infant mortality rate, which refers to the probability that a child will die before his or her first birthday. Rates of infant mortality are twice as high for African Americans as for whites. White women have the longest life expectancy and African American men have the shortest.

The relationship between lifestyle causes of poor health and illness and race is confounded by social class. The affluent have the resources to purchase more meat and “rich” foods, it is the poor who find it difficult to afford healthy food such as fresh fruits and vegetables. Social class shapes lifestyle, in particular, access to healthy food and exercise. African Americans are disproportionately likely to be poor, they are less likely to eat healthfully and exercise and more likely to suffer diseases. Americans never die of the diseases the worlds poor die of, such as malaria and cholera; instead, they die of diseases of overconsumption, such as diabetes and heart disease.

Walmart engages in a popular practice of employing its workers fewer than the 40-hour mark that requires health insurance benefits, and as a result, the majority of its employees do not have health insurance. As a result of unemployment and these sorts of corporate strategies, nearly 40 million Americans are without health insurance. Health insurance is linked primarily to employment. The government provides health insurance for the very poor and the retired. The costs continue to rise, making health care a virtually unattainable luxury for all but the insured. At risk individuals are less likely to receive the kind of preventive care that will lead to better health. The cost of the premiums are not fair. Many people cannot afford to pay 300 dollars’ monthly for health insurance. Insurance companies also have a history of charging higher premiums to African Americans.

Private health insurance has the most flexibility; patients find that they can see any physician they choose at any hospital or clinic. The costs vary but they are always reasonable unlike Medicaid. Medicaid has severe limits on hospital and physician’s reimbursements, and as a result, many of the highly ranked hospitals and clinics will not see Medicaid patients. The system of private and public health insurance creates a system of health care that is segregated by social class, and as a result of the conflation of race and social class, the system is racially segregated as well. The vast majority of Medicaid is 70% African Americans. African Americans are twice as likely to report having difficulty accessing specialists when compared to whites.

Access to health insurance directly affects access to health care. African Americans, who are more likely to have chronic diseases are less likely to have access who have the training necessary to treat these diseases. Treatment may be delayed because the patient may not be diagnosed. Diagnosis may be delayed because the patient fails to present his or her symptoms to a health care professional out of fear, lack of health insurance, and access. Diagnosis may also be delayed because of biases on the part of the health care professional. Also, the health care professional may be undertrained or underqualified. African Americans are far less likely to receive regular health care. Delays in treatment may be a direct cause of access to health care or health insurance. Finally, delays in treatment may be a result of prejudice and discrimination.

African Americans have a long and justified history of distrust of the medical community. It was strongly shaped by the Tuskegee syphilis experiment’s and the eugenics movement. The Tuskegee experiments involved poor black men with syphilis got untreated in order to study the long-term affects of the disease. They never told them their disease nor how serious it was. They were basically left to die. The eugenics movement was a social movement for the improvement of the races that relied primarily on the sterilization of potential “unfit” parents. The policies had racial and social class overtones.



Audiographic GoldLink


GoldLink is a relatively new artist. He began his career with his birth name, D’Anthony Carlos. He began making music as a hobby after high school. In 2013 he began performing as GoldLink, releasing several free tracks on soundcloud. GoldLink released his first mixtape and complex named it one of the best projects released during the first half of 2014. GoldLink collaborated with producer Rick Rubin in 2015 and released his second mixtape that placed number 19 on its Best Albums of 2015 list. In 2016 he signed with RCA Records. By 2017 he was collaborating with artists like Jazmine Sullivan, Wale, and Shy Glizzy. He made the single “Crew” and it has peaked to number 51 on the US Billboard Hot 100, becoming his highest charting single in the country. Crew is about growing up rough, trying to succeed, and no one really giving you any attention. When you finally make it people want to be around you and be in your crew. I chose this song because its my favorite at the moment. It puts me in a certain vibe and mood that I love. Its a great song to listen too when you just want to vibe with friends.

The song opens up with a guy saying a prayer. While he is saying his prayer the background of the song changes. The sound first sounds like a plane taking off. It then transitions into the sound of a subway and  a church bell ringing. After this it transitions into the sound of traffic. You can hear the cars hitting the wind and in the distance a horn honking in slow motion. You can also hear ambulance and police sirens going off. The contrast of sounds reminds me of life in New York City. I think the prayer and the background sounds have meaning. His words are angry. He is asking for revenge agaisn\\\'t someone who killed his friend. The background noises are similar to what you would hear if you were in a dangerous neighborhood or the city. I think this beginning part is a statement but also a way of getting the listener into the scenario of what the song is set in. After the guy finishes his prayer the song goes into a repeated rhythm that leads us into the chorus. The rhythm sounds a lot like a beat added to rain outside.
There is a pause for 1 second before the chorus comes in. The lyrics describe a girl who only sees him for money. He is questioning where she was before he reached stardom and labeling her as a fan who holds no rank in his life.  Once the voice comes in there is background vocals that are repeated they sound like harmonic vocals. It sounds like two people are humming in harmony to flow with the main vocalist. The humming reminds me of an acapella singing group that accompanies each other with different tones of voices. The voices don\'t overlap or crash with the vocalist, they just compliment them. The beats in the background are stable at first and then change. The repeated rhythm in the beginning is added with a bass and a hand clapping noise. When the chorus starts to end, in comes another vocalist and the beat suddenly transitions.
The transition into verse 1 is sudden but there is a slight pause when the vocalist starts his verse. The lyric content consists of him going off the story of the chorus. The girls want to be in his life because he finally made it to the top. He is explaining that he only wants one thing from them. He then goes on to explain that if it wasn\'t for the people that lived where he was from and made sacrifices for him he wouldn\'t be at the top. The beat stays consistant till the middle of his verse when it switches. It goes from a low soft beat to a more fast paced beat. This transition makes my energy go up. It is a climax to let the listener know that the vocalist is about to change into another vocalist. At the end of verse 1 there is a rhyme that makes it flow easier into verse 2 because it is more upbeat than verse 1.
The vocalist starts his verse off with \"HEY\" setting the tone for a more upbeat vibe than the last verse that was more mellow. The bass and clapping sound seems to get louder in this verse. These lyrics continue on with the story. He starts by introducing himself and mentions that he is from the southeast which is a very bad area in D.C. This could explain the introduction with the police sirens and ambulances. "She invite me to her crib, I walk in she see my heat, She said but, I live in the hills"  In this verse he is explaining that his girl is from the nice part of town and he brought his from of protection with him to sleep with, because it is a habit from living in the southeast. He then goes and explains that the girl knows he isn\'t average and he has money. The beat remains stable once it starts until the middle when it takes a very short pause and picks up back on the rhythm throughout the remainder of the verse.
The chorus comes in only in the beginning and end. I have never heard a chorus in a song in this order before. I think it made a point of wrapping the song up in the beginning and telling the story of their time in the industry and the types of experiences they have with girls. I noticed a rhythmic pattern in this song. Each verse had their own pattern. The songs transitions always started with a very fast pause going into the next verse. There really are no sudden changes in the song only slight ones. For the most part I would say that the sound is pretty consistant, balanced, and stable. The ending of the repeated chorus takes out the beat, bass, and hand clapping effect. The sound is left with a decrescendo that sounds like bells to echo out the songs ending.

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