In canada and the United States, destinations for millions of immigrants, cities have long been mosaics of ethnic communities. At the height of the “Great Immigration” between 1880 and 1910, about 1 million immigrants came to these shores each year. 7 out of 10 settled in cities in the northeastern United States. The Great Migration occured right after World War I and the restrictive legislation that followed put an end to the Great Immigration from Europe. As cities such as Chicago, New York, and Boston grew into industrial metropolises, African Americans saw greater opportunity there than in the agricultural South. During the 1920’s, the net black out-migration from the south amounted to almost 1 million people. Slowing during the Great Depression of the 1930’s, the massive relocation of blacks once again accelerated when industrial production rose during World War II. Migration remained high until the 1970’s, when urban decentralization and minority movenment to the south reversed the process. Currently, most immigrants are coming from Africa, Asia, and Latin America. And with them they are bringing great diversity.
Critics argue that some urban centers recieve the lion’s share of immigrants and that their concentrated presence strains the communities social fabric and increases their economic burden in education, health, and welfare costs. While immigrants, in general, may enrich the nation, their high numbers and the growing porportion of poorly educated, low skilled workers have negative consequences for lower skilled native workers. I think that newcomers choose to stay in segregated communties because by doing this they are reunited with their own. With people who can help them find their way and they also create their own small worlds with different sights, sounds, and smells reflected in ethnic celebrations, parades, restaraunts, street fairs, stores and other cultural activites that bond them together with others.
The fastest growing group in the United States is Hispanics.In most U.S cities with a population exceeding 100,000, Hispanics outnumber African Americans. Muslims currently experience discrimination and prejudice at a high levels. The attacks by Muslim radicals on September 11, 2001 have heightened prejudices and suspicions among non-Muslim urbanites. This group finds itself the frequent target of racial profiling both in antiterroist law enforcement actions and sterotyping. Native Americans rarely lived in cities until recently, they instead resided mostly in rural areas, on or near reservations. In recent decades, a steady migration to cities has brought many to urban areas.
Industrialized, poor women, mostly from immigrant families went to work at urban factories in low skill jobs for low wages. Women were the main work force in many textile mills and garment factories. Irish women commonly expanded their households to include other relatives or boarders in order to help meet living expenses. Many unmarried women migrated to the U.S cities, primarily to seek domestic work as maids or jobs in textile mills. Most other immigrant women sought work in cities. A different story centers on middle and upper class women, usually born to prosperous U.S merchants and industralists. Men placed them on a pedestal, as towers of moral strength and refinement, as if to balance their own competitive world of work. Prevailing values in the ninteeth and twentith century held that the nature of women was to please and the nature of men was to achieve. This attitude prevailed among the middle class until World War II, when a labor shortage drew women into the work force.
A postwar recession and soliders returning to their jobs resulting in the firing of 2 million women within 15 months after the war ended. They resumed to the pattern of women’s living being confined to the house. By 1970, however, change was under way, resulting in part from the increasing costs of a middle-class lifestyle. The dual-career family became the norm. Mothers also started to join the labor force.
A host of specialized services have emerged, providing child care, household cleaning, lawn care, and shopping assistance to the working woman.Fast food and takeout resturants, laundries, and dry cleaners carry out tasks for which she often has little time. Large merchandising stores and supermarkets, as well as mall and mini malls, make shopping effiecient by minimizing the time spent going from store to sore.
I dont think the built environemnt was desgined with women in mind because it is male dominated. In male dominated society, planners allocate most open spaces to male oriented activites, such as sports, giving little consideration to the needs of women. However, now, now more attention is giving attention to creating safe environments for women and children.