Osterman, K. (2010). Indirect and Direct Aggression. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.
This book provides a good overview of the cross-cultural research on interpersonal aggression of today. For my digital primary text, which is the After School mobile app, I will be focusing on part 1 “Indirect Aggression” and part 2 “Bullying in Schools” from this book.
“Relational aggression involves social manipulation in the context of a dyadic relationship rather than a social group or network. Thus, the typical results are threats to cut off communication, end the friendship, etc.” (Page 8).
“A sizable proportion of teachers in higher grades may experience some degree of resistance to such forms of interaction with students as class meetings and role plays. To reduce such possible resistance, it may be helpful to give teachers in higher grades special training with practical demonstrations in the use of such non-traditional techniques.” (Page 127).
“…some forms of bullying, especially those based on indirect aggression, require elaborate socio-cognitive skills such as higher order theory of mind in order to understand better how to manipulate relationships. Instead of cognitive deficits, it is emotional processes and specifically lack of empathy that seem to account for why these cognitively sophisticated bullies chose antisocial goals.” (Page 144).