Whittaker, E., & Kowalski, R. M. (2014, November). Cyberbullying Via Social Media. Journal of School Violence, 14, 11-29. doi:10.1080/15388220.2014.949377
In this article, three studies examined rates of cyberbullying among college-age students, venues through which it occurs, with a particular focus on social media, and perceptions of cyberbullying. The claim is that reported prevalence rates vary across studies, depending on how cyberbullying is defined, the time parameter used, ages of participants, and format used to classify involvement (Page 12).
“Like traditional bullying, cyberbullying is an act of aggression intended to cause harm or distress, it has a repetitive quality, and it occurs among individuals whose relationship is characterized by a power imbalance” (Page 11).
“These venues through which cyberbullying occurs reflect the technologies most in use at the time. Thus, they change rapidly, with implications for prevention and intervention efforts that must keep up with the changes in technology.” (Page 12).
“…the majority of the research on cyberbullying has focused on youth in middle and high school to the virtual exclusion of another impor- tant segment of the school-age population—college students. One study found, however, that as many students reported that their first experience with cyberbullying occurred during college as occurred during middle school” (Page 13).
“Findings indicated that cyber aggression was most common in website comments and least common on Facebook. The victims of the cyber aggression differ with venue as well, and random people known only online are the most common targets on every venue except Facebook. This emphasizes the role that ever-changing technology plays in shaping our online interactions, as well as the role that the victim–perpetrator relationship plays in facilitating cyber aggression.” (Page 26).