All posts by kessingerrg

Sourcing My Dream #5

Letendre, J. (2014). Cyberbullying Through the New Media: Findings from an International Network by Smith, P. K., and Steffgen, G. Social Work with Groups, 37(4), 351-353.

Book Review


The book examines cyberbullying and identifies steps for macro- and microlevel intervention and resolution. There is emphasis on the broad range, public forum and anonymity along with parent’s lack of knowledge. The claim is made that in any country there is larger system that surrounds cyberbullying besides just the users and occasionally their parents. It also includes the media, law enforcement, and the technology industry (page 352).

“…the empowerment of youth in the problem-solving process and the importance of adults in helping youth to develop healthy norms for interaction in online forums” are two significant factors when it comes to rectifying and further preventing the public problem of cyberbullying.” (Page 351).

“Cyberbullying, like face-to-face bullying, has enormous impact on youth whether they perpetrators, victims, or bystanders, and their involvement in solving the problem is essential.” (Page 352).

“The media’s focused and shallow attention is consistent with the negative portrayal of youth and a focus on aggressive or sexualized behaviors. This type of coverage increases fear in adults and creates a climate of ‘moral panic’ that fosters the pressure to punish rather than focus on educating and supporting youth in developing behaviors that will prevent or intervene in the problem of cyberbullying.” (Page 352).

“…the recognition that cyberbullying, though a distressing and harmful problem in today’s world of increased technological communication, can be understood.” (Page 353).

Sourcing My Dream #4

Osterman, K. (2010). Indirect and Direct Aggression. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.



This book provides a good overview of the cross-cultural research on interpersonal aggression of today. For my digital primary text, which is the After School mobile app, I will be focusing on part 1 “Indirect Aggression” and part 2 “Bullying in Schools” from this book.

“Relational aggression involves social manipulation in the context of a dyadic relationship rather than a social group or network. Thus, the typical results are threats to cut off communication, end the friendship, etc.” (Page 8).

“A sizable proportion of teachers in higher grades may experience some degree of resistance to such forms of interaction with students as class meetings and role plays. To reduce such possible resistance, it may be helpful to give teachers in higher grades special training with practical demonstrations in the use of such non-traditional techniques.” (Page 127).

“…some forms of bullying, especially those based on indirect aggression, require elaborate socio-cognitive skills such as higher order theory of mind in order to understand better how to manipulate relationships. Instead of cognitive deficits, it is emotional processes and specifically lack of empathy that seem to account for why these cognitively sophisticated bullies chose antisocial goals.” (Page 144).

Sourcing My Dream #3

Wegge, D., Vandebosch, H., Eggermont, S., & Walrave, M. (2014). The Strong, the Weak, and the Unbalanced: The Link Between Tie Strength and Cyberaggression on a Social Network Site. Social Science Computer Review, 33, 315-342. doi:10.1177/0894439314546729

Journal Article


This article explains a thorough analysis examining how young people’s connections on online networking sites are related to their risk of being involved in cyberbullying. The claim is that social relationships of young adolescents and their connections on a social network site can be mapped in the context of an existing, offline population (Page 316). The focus of this study is Facebook because it is currently the most popular networking site, but the details can be easily compatible with my digital primary text, After School.

“Friendships online capture a diverse set of social relationships, including family members, school friends, classmates, and acquaintances. Hence, adolescents connect with a diverse set of peers on social networking sites, ranging from ‘‘very good friends’’ to ‘‘no friends’’. Therefore, teenagers acquire both bonding social capital (strong ties) and bridging social capital (weak ties).” (Page 317).

“The definition of tie strength refers to both the ‘‘closeness’’ of a tie (intensity and intimacy) and the ‘‘reciprocity’’ of ties (mutual confining and reciprocal services). Therefore, both notions have been used to describe the strengths of network ties.” (Page 318). “Strong and stable interpersonal relationships are essential to the development of social belonging and emotional well-being. Therefore, it is expected that a lack of such ties increases the likelihood of both perpetration and victimization. With regard to perpetration, poor friendship quality may result in aggressive behavior.” (Page 320).

“The presence of same-grade online connections that were not supported by underlying friendships was shown to increase the likelihood of involvement in aggressive actions on Facebook. Exposure to and interaction with Facebook-only connections (i.e., fellow-grade students who are connected on Facebook but who are not friends at school) increased the risk of falling victim to harassment.” (Page 329).

Sourcing My Dream #2

Whittaker, E., & Kowalski, R. M. (2014, November). Cyberbullying Via Social Media. Journal of School Violence, 14, 11-29. doi:10.1080/15388220.2014.949377

Journal Article


In this article, three studies examined rates of cyberbullying among college-age students, venues through which it occurs, with a particular focus on social media, and perceptions of cyberbullying. The claim is that reported prevalence rates vary across studies, depending on how cyberbullying is defined, the time parameter used, ages of participants, and format used to classify involvement (Page 12).

“Like traditional bullying, cyberbullying is an act of aggression intended to cause harm or distress, it has a repetitive quality, and it occurs among individuals whose relationship is characterized by a power imbalance” (Page 11).

“These venues through which cyberbullying occurs reflect the technologies most in use at the time. Thus, they change rapidly, with implications for prevention and intervention efforts that must keep up with the changes in technology.” (Page 12).

“…the majority of the research on cyberbullying has focused on youth in middle and high school to the virtual exclusion of another impor- tant segment of the school-age population—college students. One study found, however, that as many students reported that their first experience with cyberbullying occurred during college as occurred during middle school” (Page 13).

“Findings indicated that cyber aggression was most common in website comments and least common on Facebook. The victims of the cyber aggression differ with venue as well, and random people known only online are the most common targets on every venue except Facebook. This emphasizes the role that ever-changing technology plays in shaping our online interactions, as well as the role that the victim–perpetrator relationship plays in facilitating cyber aggression.” (Page 26).

Sourcing My Dream #1

Selkie, E. M., Fales, J. L., & Moreno, M. A. (2016, February). Cyberbullying Prevalence Among US Middle and High School–Aged Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Quality Assessment. Journal of Adolescent Health, 58, 125-133. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2015.09.026

Journal Article


Because of the physical and mental health concerns surrounding cyberbullying, the authors performed a systematic review in order to investigate prevalence of cyberbullying among U.S. middle and high schools. The claim is found in the last sentence of the first paragraph. However, it is not firmly stated and leaves some room for the uncertainties to be answered throughout the article’s research and analysis. This article explains how cyberbullying is much more dangerous than the traditional forms of peer aggression (face-to-face, gossiping, etc.). It also provides many statistics from their research regarding the extent cyberbullying has expanded in recent years.

“Youth who experience CB are more likely to complain of difficulty sleeping, recurrent abdominal pain, and frequent headaches. They are also more likely to endorse symptoms of anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation compared with non-victimized peers” (Paragraph 1).

“Given the lack of consensus on the definition of CB, it may not be surprising that estimated prevalence rates of CB perpetration and victimization vary widely around the world.” (Paragraph 3).

“…the use of the Internet, cell phones and other technologies to bully, harass, threaten or embarrass someone has increased cybervictimization prevalence to be 31%” (Paragraph 22).

Citing My Dream

Burns, M. (2015, April 21). Controversial After School App Relaunches with New Safety Features and Zero Tolerance for Hate. TechCrunch.

Galdi, S., Maass, A., & Cadinu, M. (2013). Objectifying Media: Their Effect on Gender Role Norms and Sexual Harassment of Women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, volume 38, 398-413. doi: 10.1177/0361684313515185

Gladwell, M. (2000). The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference. Boston: Little, Brown.

Osterman, K. (2010). Indirect and direct aggression. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.

Selkie, E. M., Fales, J. L., & Moreno, M. A. (2016, February). Cyberbullying Prevalence Among US Middle and High School–Aged Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Quality Assessment. Journal of Adolescent Health, 58, 125-133. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2015.09.026

Shirky, C. (2008). Here Comes Everybody: The Power of Organizing Without Organizations. New York: Penguin Press.

Stopher, J. (2013). Being Popular in Online Social Networks: How Agentic, Communal, and Creativity Traits Relate to Judgments of Status and Liking. Journal of Research in Personality, 5, 592-598.

Wegge, D., Vandebosch, H., Eggermont, S., & Walrave, M. (2014). The Strong, the Weak, and the Unbalanced: The Link Between Tie Strength and Cyberaggression on a Social Network Site. Social Science Computer Review, 33, 315-342. doi:10.1177/0894439314546729

Whittaker, E., & Kowalski, R. M. (2014, November). Cyberbullying Via Social Media. Journal of School Violence, 14, 11-29. doi:10.1080/15388220.2014.949377

Dreamers Unite!

My research question involves determining the extent to which social media perpetuates cyberbullying specifically through the “After School” mobile app. Since I personally used the app, my personal experience with and understanding of it have definitely expanded. It is important to explore, research and write about because of how ubiquitous the virtual world has become. Just about everyone has an account on one or more social media networks where they connect with family, friends, and colleagues. Even older generations are learning about technology that they didn’t have the opportunity of growing up with as my generation has.

The After School app in particular is important to discuss because the general public is already aware of the social phenomenas of Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram. I wanted to explore a relatively new concept. Since it was released only two years ago, there are hundreds of thousands of users already but still not nearly as much public awareness as other social media outlets have. Online victimization has also become a serious public problem that does not seem to be going away anytime soon, but rather it is ever-increasing.

The sources I have found involve statistics about cyberbullying in general, social media expansion, comparisons between various networking sites, and general information about the After School App. Because of how much social media has expanded and taken over our lives, there is endless research about this topic. I’ll admit it has been difficult to narrow down my research to the sources that are most important and relevant. Through more time and effort and now peer feedback, I hope to continue this process with a more narrowed focus that will ultimately find ways to resolve and/or eradicate online victimization entirely.

Research Sources

Selkie, Ellen M., Jessica L. Fales, and Megan A. Moreno. “Cyberbullying Prevalence Among US Middle and High School–Aged Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Quality Assessment.” Journal of Adolescent Health 58.2 (2016): 125-33. Web. 3 Oct. 2016.

Reilly, Marie, Jason Fogler, Ellen Selkie, and Marilyn Augustyn. “Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder–Related Impulsivity and Cyberbullying in Social Media.” Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics 37.6 (2016): 511-13. Web. 3 Oct. 2016.

Whittaker, Elizabeth, and Robin M. Kowalski. “Cyberbullying Via Social Media.” Journal of School Violence 14.1 (2014): 11-29. Web. 3 Oct. 2016.

Norton, Shelby. “Exploring Positives and Negatives of Social Media and their Effects on LGBT Youth in America.” Order No. 10035183 Pacifica Graduate Institute, 2016. Ann Arbor: ProQuest. Web. 3 Oct. 2016.

Wegge, Denis, Heidi Vandebosch, Steven Eggermont, and Michael Walrave. “The Strong, the Weak, and the Unbalanced: The Link Between Tie Strength and Cyberaggression on a Social Network Site.” Social Science Computer Review 33.3 (2014): 315-42. Web. 2 Oct. 2016.

Osterman, Karin. Indirect and Direct Aggression. Frankfurt Am Main: Peter Lang, 2010. Print. 2 Oct. 2016.

Garandeau, Claire F., Ihno A. Lee, and Christina Salmivalli. “Inequality Matters: Classroom Status Hierarchy and Adolescents’ Bullying.” J Youth Adolescence Journal of Youth and Adolescence 43.7 (2013): 1123-133. Web. 2 Oct. 2016.

Parris, Leandra, Kris Varjas, and Joel Meyers. “‘‘The Internet Is a Mask’’: High School Students’ Suggestions for Preventing Cyberbullying.” Western Journal of Emergency Medicine 15.5 (2014): 587-92. Web. 2 Oct. 2016.

Smith, Peter K., and Georges Steffgen. Cyberbullying through the New Media: Findings from an International Network. Psychology Press, 2014. Print. 1 Oct. 2016.

Wood, Daniel B. “Cyberbullying: Should Schools Police Students’ Social Media Accounts?” The Christian Science Monitor: 11. Sep 17 2013. ProQuest. Web. 3 Oct. 2016.

Hinduja, Sameer, and Justin W. Patchin. School Climate 2.0: Preventing Cyberbullying and Sexting One Classroom at a Time. Thousand Oaks: Corwin, 2012. Print. 1 Oct. 2016.

Castile, Holly. “Cyberbullying: An Exploration of Secondary School Administrators’ Experiences with Cyberbullying Incidents in Louisiana.” Order No. 3606209 Lamar University – Beaumont, 2013. Ann Arbor: ProQuest. Web. 3 Oct. 2016.

Zhang, Leihan, Jichang Zhao, and Ke Xu. “Who Creates Trends in Online Social Media: The Crowd or Opinion Leaders?” Journal of Computer‐Mediated Communication 21.1 (2016): 1-16. Web. 3 Oct. 2016.

Jackson, Tamika Danielle. “Socially Acceptable: Searching for Acceptance in the Age of Social Media.” Order No. 1553041 State University of New York at Buffalo, 2014. Ann Arbor: ProQuest. Web. 2 Oct. 2016.

Bryce, Jo, and James Fraser. “‘It’s Common Sense That It’s Wrong’: Young People’s Perceptions And Experiences Of Cyberbullying.” Cyberpsychology, Behavior & Social Networking 16.11 (2013): 783-787. Academic Search Complete. Web. 4 Oct. 2016.

Core Connections

For the purposes of this assignment, my topic for the ACAP is #haterz. My primary text is the After School mobile app that has emerged in popularity since it was released in November of 2014. The two readings which I will be referencing in my paper are chapter 2 from Shirky and chapter 2 by Gladwell. In “Sharing Anchors Community”, Shirky expresses the idea that the hierarchal organizations of workplaces have transformed along with recent technological advancements. A wider range of people are connected, which can result in more success and profit in business ventures. With the anonymous message board on After School, more teenagers are being exploited for their shortcomings and embarrassing moments. The concept of hierarchy thrives in U.S. high schools. While technology has expanded connections it has also perpetuated cultural norms within schools. I want to compare and contrast the hierarchy in businesses versus schools. In “The Law of the Few”, Gladwell explains how word-of-mouth epidemics can spread depending on the nature of the messenger. In relation to the app, teenagers typically have a role of being a connector, maven or salesman. Based on these characters, each person can have a varying influence on their peers through anonymous interactions.

Drafting with Groupthink

Online social networking has become a common pastime for the youth of today’s society. This form of social media offers individuals a portal for communication and entertainment. Most recently, the mobile app called After School has soared in popularity since its emergence in late 2014. It has nearly taken precedence over Facebook and Twitter and in such a short time. With the virtual world expanding, there are always potential risks to consider. After School consists of an anonymous message board. This allows for inappropriate behavior to escalate along  with the onslaught of cyberbullying. This app is no different than other prominent social media sites. How far will people allow this technological takeover to continue? Confessions, secrets, and criticisms are being declared openly and anonymously. Thus, many young people are left feeling uncomfortable, distressed, and some even threatened. Cyberbullying can be limited more effectively through user awareness, parental monitoring, and legal regulations.