In the paper, “Cosmetics: They Influence More Than Caucasian Female Facial Attractiveness“, published in the Journal of Applied Social Psychology, the authors statistically evaluated responses of over 300 subjects to 8 photographs of women taken with and without makeup. Women presented wearing cosmetics were perceived as healthier and more confident than when presented without. Participants also perceived women wearing cosmetics with a greater earning potential and with more prestigious jobs than the same women without cosmetics. The study concluded that women can employ cosmetics to manipulate their appearance and reap up possible benefits, such as being successful at a job interview or negotiating higher salary. By wearing makeup they may also benefit from a boost in positive self-perception and well-being that appears to be associated with wearing makeup. The paper Enhanced female attractiveness with use of cosmetics and male tipping behavior in restaurants, published in the Journal of Cosmetic Science, investigated male tipping behavior. This was a field study, as apposed to my two previous examples that were conducted in a laboratory setting. One waitress was used in 15 week study, alternatively having a natural look and makeup look. The study confirmed the suspected outcome, that is that male patrons gave tips more often to a waitress who wore makeup and that when they did so they gave her a larger amount of money and that both male and female patrons found the waitress to be more attractive when wearing makeup. The authors also found that there was no difference in tipping patterns of female patrons.
These two academic studies, one theoretical and one practical, both clearly support the idea that wearing make-up have a positive impact on women’s career, and therefore yield a positive answer to question 1). The second paper presents a specific example how wearing makeup lead to higher earnings, but also indicates that gender will play a distinctive role in the study. Notice that all the extra money for the waitress came from male patrons. Would my grandmother read these papers, she would just wave her hand and say: “These academics are just wasting whoever’s money is paying them, to investigate questions that any 12 year old can answer.” She would say: “If your manager is a man, wear makeup, if she is a women be careful with makeup.” This is common sense. As for the tipping experiment — any grown up women (or man) (maybe even a 12 year old 🙂 ) would predict the outcome correctly, am I right? This said, there are limitations and wearing too much makeup can actually hurt you. Heavy makeup is often associated with a very old profession and may be turn off especially if you are applying for or trying to get promoted to a position that requires some brain power (see here). But again, this is common sense.
Do all women agree that wearing make-up has positive impact on women’s career, improves her relationship with a partner and boosts her self-esteem?
I am sure that the answer is “no” to all three questions in the title, since, for each of these questions, I can find at least one women in the world whose answer would be “no”. Instead, I will focus on what’s the majority’s opinion. So let me first rephrase my questions:
1) Does wearing make-up have mostly positive impact on women’s career?
2) Does wearing make-up mostly boost self-esteem of the wearer?
3) Does wearing make-up improve woman’s relationship with her partner?
I have found numerous scholarly articles, online publications and blogs whose answers to the questions 1) and 2) is yes. The answers to question 3) are almost evenly split between yes and no. So this may be the most interesting question of our investigation. There are several related questions whose answer may shed light on the ambiguity of the answer to the third question.
3a) Do men in general find women wearing makeup more attractive?
From my research so far, it seems that the answer to 3a) is yes. So the question that comes naturally is why many men don’t like their girlfriends/wives wearing makeup when most of them prefer (are attracted to) women with makeup. The answer could range from jealousy (he is attracted to sexy women and wants her to be less sexy by not wearing makeup you know the old american song: “If you want to be happy for the rest of your life, make an ugly woman your wife” 🙂 ) to being concern about their partner’s well being or need for intimacy (make makes her alienated). This brings up naturally two more questions:
3b) How healthy or unhealthy is makeup for your completion?
3c) Are there distinctive psychological traits of men who answered “yes” and those who answered “no” to the question: “Do you prefer your girlfriend/wife wearing makeup?”
Questions 1) and 2)
For instance, in the paper, Cosmetics: They Influence More Than Caucasian Female Facial Attractiveness, published in the Journal of Applied Social Psychology, the authors statistically evaluated responses of over 300 subjects to 8 photographs of women taken with and without makeup. Women presented wearing cosmetics were perceived as healthier and more confident than when presented without. Participants also perceived women wearing cosmetics with a greater earning potential and with more prestigious jobs than the same women without cosmetics. The study concluded that women can employ cosmetics to manipulate their appearance and reap up possible benefits, such as being successful at a job interview or negotiating higher salary. By wearing makeup they may also benefit from a boost in positive self-perception and well-being that appears to be associated with wearing makeup. In another study Relation between facial morphology, personality and the functions of facial make-up in women, published in the International Journal of Cosmetic Science, the investigators concerned themselves with the study of relations between speciﬁc emotional and psychological proﬁles and the use of makeup. In an experiment, sixty-two Caucasian female subjects, that use makeup daily, were divided into two distinct groups depending whether they use makeup for camouflage (group C) of seduction (group S). Women in group S had mostly high self-esteem, high assertiveness and low anxiety, while women in group C had mostly low self-esteem, low assertiveness and high anxiety. The results of this article suggest that make-up is used differently, depending on psychological profiles of women, to manipulate their facial features to enhance their attractiveness, but in each case make-up supplication makes the wearer feel better about herself which leads to higher self-esteem of the subject. Yet another paper, Enhanced female attractiveness with use of cosmetics and male tipping behavior in restaurants, published in the Journal of Cosmetic Science, investigated male tipping behavior. This was a field study, as apposed to my two prvious examples that were condusted in a laboratory setting. One waitress was used in 15 week study, alternatively having a natural look and makeup look. The study confirmed the suspected outcome, that is that male patrons gave tips more often to a waitress who wore makeup and that when they did so they gave her a larger amount of money and that both male and female patrons found the waitress to be more attractive when wearing makeup.
These three scholarly papers give overwhelming evidence that the answer to questions 1) and 2) is yes. This answer is further supported by many online publications (to be continued)
and common sense (“my grandma knew the answers before they were scientifically proved” – to be continued)
I have decided to share some personal experiences with makeup. When I was younger, I didn’t like make up. I was against it because I thought it alters the a natural beauty of women. I did not realize the importance of make up until we moved to the Middle East. People here pay much more attention to their looks than people in the US. How you look is very important here, because you will be treated according to your looks. Women wearing designer clothes, shoes hand bags, expensive watches are treated better. Also Caucasian people are treated better that Asian people or people from Africa. I experienced it first-hand. When I am went shopping without make-up people treat me as if I was a maid. I don’t want to go into details, but believe me, it is not a nice experience. When I started to put on makeup, things changed significantly. Especially when I did a make-up that changed my face completely so that I looked Caucasian (I ended up looking like a Lebanese 🙂 ). So, looking back at those times when I did not wear make-up, I now realize I would have been much more successful if I was wearing makeup. Makeup can not only help you to conceal imperfections of your face, but also help to conceal emotions that you don’t want to reveal to the outside. For instance, during the interview for a position at MAC Cosmetics I was wearing full make up. I was very nervous and stressed and without make-up I would look like as white as a sheet of paper. But, because I had face drenched with make-up complemented with a strong red lipstick, I was able to hide my fears behind my make-up mask, like an actor in Old Greece hides used to hide his face behind a mask. So, using this mask, I was able to project a strong persona with mega self-confidence to the hiring manager and, of course, I got the job as a makeup artist 🙂 . Since that day, I started loving make up. I became to think of my makeup as a shield. It was a mask under which I can hide, and I can be someone else, a tougher and stronger person, who will not be so easily hurt.
Questions 3) (under construction)
In this blog post a women complains that her husband is upset that she stopped wearing makeup on Sundays after 22 years of marriage and that “he is worried that this is the beginning of a “downward spiral” for her into a messy, slobby woman with permanent razor stubble.”
In the blog post “My Boyfriend Likes Me Better without Makeup,” a women states that her boyfriend prefers her natural look. Furthermore, she states that “Men hit on me more often and women complimented my complexion.”
In her interview with Harper’s Bazaar Gwen Stefani‘s said: “I like to make my husband like me more, and he likes it when I’m wearing makeup.”
Okay Imelda — you are getting it out on the screen, and I love that! I like that you dropped that first question (Do women agree), and then revised the focus on the impact make-up wearing has on women’s lives.
I think your experience would make a great start to this project. Your feelings of being treated “like a maid” (can you give some details about how people behaved to you)? Then your using make-up. A photo — before / after of yourself? You tell us how the make-up transformed you to look Lebanese, but I’m thinking visuals will help supplement and prove this point you make.
I love the point — my grandma knew these answers without researching. This shows a nice voice on your part, and it’s something you need to develop. Where to put this part about your grandmother — maybe try it several places — after some of the research. What about a photo of grandma?
So the first two questions: Does wearing make-up improve women’s lives and self-esteem? You’ve found it does (and grandma knew that!). You’ll have to break these two down — perhaps a section on improving women’s self-esteem first, then the research on how — oh my gosh — research shows women with makeup are perceived as more competent, get better jobs, etc.
Then transition to the relationship with partner part — because it is the most controversial in your research, and the most interesting. Since the research isn’t conclusive, and since this moves into the issue of gender expectations, it makes sense that this will be a big part of your argument.
Make-up being good for your complexion — seems unrelated Imelda. You have enough on your plate!
I hope my comments help you rethink and structure. : ) Look forward to talking to you in a Google+ conference soon. Look for round #2 sign up sheet next week. : )
ALSO, the work you do as a make-up artist belongs in this project somewhere Imelda! Your Instagram is fascinating!
How will you integrate it? Do you see any research that supports or conflicts with your own work experience?
Think about this as you write your BETA draft. (Full rough draft)
posted a new activity comment 6 years ago
I like the way you organize your research table. It makes it easier to understand where each one belongs.
Imelda, I don’t think your question “Do women agree?” is what your research seems to be getting at. Are you trying to figure out if the research supports women’s dependence on / need for / confidence in make-up? It seems like your research resoundingly shows benefits of make-up on women’s self-esteem, hiring, etc.
Have you tried to look at what women have to say about make up? Maybe online forums dedicated to this topic? Maybe find voices of people who reject make up?
Article citation: The role of symmetry in attraction to average faces by Benedict C. Jones, Lisa M. DeBruine and Anthony C. Little, Perception & Psychophysics 2007, 69 (8), 1273-1277
Link to article: http://www.facelab.org/include/download?id=159
This paper studies the extent to which symmetry contributes to the attractiveness of average faces. Average faces are highly symmetric and increasing the symmetry of face images increases their attractiveness. The authors also demonstrated that increasing averageness of 2-D face shape independently of symmetry is sufficient to increase attractiveness. Additionally, they showed that averageness preferences are significantly weaker when the effects of symmetry are controlled for using computer graphic methods than when the effects of symmetry are not controlled for, suggesting that symmetry contributes to the attractiveness of average faces.
Stimuli. Full color, front view face images of 30 young female adults (age: M 5 18.56 years, SD 5 0.72) with neutral expressions were taken with a digital camera under standardized lighting conditions and against the same background. These images were then aligned to a standard interpupillary distance. These 30 face images were then used to manufacture a female prototype face, with the average color and shape information for the sample and representative texture. The methods used to manufacture this prototype were identical in detail to those used to manufacture composites in previous studies of face preferences.
This nugget describes the experiment. The photographs of 30 young female s were taken and digitally modified to become symmetric. From these images the researchers constructed an average face. An example of face images used the experiments is shown here.
Although here we have emphasized the role of averageness of 2-D shape for female facial attractiveness, it is important to note that averageness is not the only determinant of attractiveness. Indeed, while the “averageness hypothesis” proposed that average faces are optimally attractive (Langlois & Roggman, 1990), other research has demonstrated that many nonaverage facial cues can have positive effects on attractiveness (e.g., DeBruine, Jones, Unger, Little, & Feinberg, in press; Perrett et al., 1998; Perrett, May, & Yoshikawa, 1994). For example, female faces with exaggerated feminine characteristics (e.g., large eyes, full lips) are more attractive than those with more average features (Perrett et al., 1998; Perrett et al., 1994). The relative contributions of average and nonaverage facial characteristics to attractiveness remain to be investigated.
Our findings for stronger averageness preferences when both symmetry and averageness are manipulated than when averageness alone is manipulated suggest that symmetry contributes to the attractiveness of average faces. As such, our findings present converging evidence that facial symmetry is a cue to attractiveness. Additionally, as both symmetry (Cárdenas & Harris, 2006; Gombrich, 1984) and average configurations (Halberstadt & Rhodes, 2000; Winkielman et al., 2006) are also preferred in nonface stimuli, our findings raise the possibility that symmetry may also contribute to the appeal of average patterns generally.
In this nugget the authors discuss characteristics that make female faces attractive. Average and symmetric faces are considered more attractive but also faces with exaggerated feminine characteristics, such as large eyes, full lips, are considered more attractive.
This paper is relevant to my research since it investigates what type of faces are perceived to be attractive and therefore suggests that makeup applications should be made to achieve this preferred look.
This internet provides very little information about the paper and no information about the institutions that were involved in this study. The hyperlink “research” does not lead to the study — it leads to a different article instead.The hyperlink “contagious” is not needed. The last sentence is incorrect.
2) There have been studies done on Facebook and all the emotions related to posts. “We have enough power in this data set to show that emotional expressions spread online and also that positive expressions spread more than negative.”
This internet text does not provide enough information about the paper and about the institutions that were involved in this study. There is also no link to the paper. The hyperlink “positive expressions” is irrelevant.
3) Researchers in a new study have found that feelings displayed on Facebook are contagious. They found enough data to show that “emotional expressions spread online and also that positive expressions spread more than negative.”
This internet text provides only very brief information about the paper and no information about the institutions that were involved in this study. The hyperlink does not lead to the study — it leads to a different article instead.
4) In a new study, researchers from University of California, San Diego have found that feelings displayed on Facebook are contagious. Publishing a paper in the journal PLOS ONE, the team analyzed over a billion anonymous status updates from more than 100 million Facebook subscribers across the United States and found that positive posts beget positive posts and negative posts beget negative posts. They said that while both are common on the site, the positive posts are more influential. They concluded, “We have enough power in this data set to show that emotional expressions spread online and also that positive expressions spread more than negative.”
This internet text provides information about the team who conducted the research, gives more details about the study, provides the magnitude of the sample and clearly state the results. It also provides links to the paper and the web page of the journal where the paper appeared. More details and correct links make #4 more effective than #3.
Article citation: Personal Dynamic Media, Alan Kay and Adele Goldberg, Computer 10(3):31–41. March 1977.
Link to article: http://www.newmediareader.com/book_samples/nmr-26-kay.pdf
This paper includes some revolutionary ideas. In 1970’s computers were viewed mostly as tools for scientists, mathematicians and engineers as a memory storage and devices that rapidly execute computations given by algorithms. Kay and Goldberg envisioned that small computers have also a potential to be a replacement for paper and pencil, used for variety of creative or research activities such as animation, writing poetry, composing music, graphic design, etc. They can be used by business people, doctors, artists, musicians, poets, writers, architects, lawyers, etc. and ,most importantly, by children, who (according to the authors) demand more from the computers than most adults. Unlike other authors, who advocated the idea that time-sharing, Kay and Goldberg were promoting the use of individual small computers. The authors describe a system of overlapping windows that resembles the windows system used first in Apple’s computers that was later adapted by Microsoft. Windows are now the most common operating system used on personal computers.
In some aspects today’s notebooks and tablets surpassed the expectations of Kay and Goldberg’s paper.
These devices are now used as communication devices, cameras, entertainment centers that allow playing and streaming of music and movies and online gaming and much more.
In the introduction the authors wrote:
“Imagine having your own self-contained knowledge manipulator in a portable package the size and shape of an ordinary notebook. Suppose it had enough power to outrace your senses of sight and hearing, enough capacity to store for later retrieval thousands of page-equivalents of reference materials, poems, letters, recipes, records, drawings, animations, musical scores, waveforms, dynamic simulations, and anything else you would like to remember and change. We envision a device as small and portable as possible which could both take in and give out information in quantities approaching that of human sensory systems. Visual output should be, at the least, of higher quality than what can be obtained from newsprint. Audio output should adhere to similar high fidelity standards. There should be no discernible pause between cause and effect. One of the metaphors we used when designing such a system was that of a musical instrument, such as a flute, which is owned by its user and responds instantly and consistently to its owner’s wishes. Imagine the absurdity of a one-second delay between blowing a note and hearing it!”
I am using tablet every day to to plan my appointments with clients, I use it to do online purchases for my business, I use it as a GPS to find my clients houses. I also use it do research about newest makeup trends. So that is where this paper, which essentially describes a device similar to a tablet, intersects with my research about makeup.
The amount of technological advances that had been predicted and have come true is something that always fascinates me. For scholars of previous generations to predict such advancements, and the continued advancement of technology today only shows that we are far from over in what is possible to be created in the digital world, and all other categories as well.
This is a very good example of how social media helps to find new singers (and artists in general) their audience. Wery good job!
Jeremy, you did a great job linking the most relevant web pages to this paper. I also like the pictures that you illustrated your blog. It makes the article more lively. Keep up the excellent job!
Sarah, you did a great job in supplementing the most important hyperlinks to webpages. that are most relevant for the paper. well done!
Article citation:Enhanced female attractiveness with use of cosmetics and male tipping behavior in restaurants, N., Jacob C., J. Cosmet. Sci, 62, 283-290 (May/June 2011).
Link to article: http://nicolas.gueguen.free.fr/Articles/JCS2011.pdf
Previous studies concluded that women wearing makeup were rated as being cleaner, more tidy, more feminine, and more physically attractive. The intent of this paper was to explore the effect of makeup on individual behavior as contrasted with previous research in which impression formation of facial attractiveness was evaluated in a laboratory. In particular, tipping behavior was used to evaluate the impact of cosmetics. Previous studies showed that diners left larger tips for those waitresses who wore flowers in their hair, or those exhibiting larger smiles. This was particularly true for men rather than for women. Based on previous literature, the authors hypothesized that waitresses’ make-up would increase tipping behavior. Three random variables were examined: the frequency of tips, the amount of tips and the attractiveness of the waitress. Samples from these random variables were subjected to statistical analysis and the conclusions of this analysis confirmed that male patrons gave tips more often to a waitress who wore makeup and that when they did so they gave her a larger amount of money. On the other hand no difference was found in tipping by female patrons when tipping the waitress with or without makeup. The study found no significant difference between attractiveness ratings of the waitress by male and female patrons — both sexes found the waitress to be more attractive when wearing makeup.
This nugget describes, in detail, the setup of the experiment. The experiment that the authors conducted involved 112 single male customers, 62 single female customers, one waitress who was serving meals with and without make-up. The experiment took place in one restaurant in France, where tipping is not usual because a service charge of 12% is added to the bill. It had a duration of 30 days. The tips to the waitress were recorded and the patrons were asked to rate the attractiveness of the waitress on the scale 0 to 9. There are some obvious limitations of this experiment. That the authors used only one waitress and one restaurant is the most significant weakness of the experiment. Otherwise, it seems that the authors tried their best in maintaining objectivity of the experiment.
This nugget summarizes the findings of the study. The article confirmed the initial expectation of the authors that male patrons gave tips more often to a waitress when she was wearing makeup than when she did not wore one. Also the tips were larger when the waitress was wearing makeup. The authors also reported that there was no significant difference in tipping by female patrons when tipping the waitress with or without makeup. Both male and female patrons considered the waitress more attractive when wearing makeup. But wearing makeup was positively correlated with frequency of tipping and amounts of tips only for male patrons. For female patrons, wearing makeup and frequency of tipping, and wearing makeup and amount of money tipped, seem to be independent.
In relation to the paper examined in Nugget #4, Cosmetics: They Influence More Than Caucasian Female Facial Attractiveness, this paper reconfirms, that in the special case of a waitress, wearing makeup can be financially beneficial to women. It also provides a partial positive answer to my research claim:
Do all women agree that wearing make-up has positive impact on women’s career, improves her relationship with a partner and boosts her self-esteem?
Does wearing make-up have a positive impact on women’s careers, improve her relationship with a partner and boost her self-esteem? — I think we’d all guess that YES, it likely does. But the irony is that we would like to hope it doesn’t. Right?
So do you plan to sort of take the wind out of our hopes, so to speak? To say to us — unfortunately research confirms that women’s lives are much better when they wear makeup?
This tips article is interesting, and it provides concrete evidence for makeup effecting a woman’s financial situation. A good find Imelda!
I think this is really interesting and it makes sense the statistics. But I wonder if the statistics would be the same if you took girls in make-up vs. girls with natural beauty and no make-up who would get tipped more?
“the main point and focus of the article is that music and album sales are indeed being affected in a negative way through social media, even if the buzz on the music is being created by the internet. Sites like the former Napster, and new ones like spotify and last.fm are creating buzz and play for the music, but little revenue is being generated…[Read more]
Facebook tinkered with users’ feeds for a massive psychology experiment
By William Hughes
Jun 27, 2014 3:30 PM
Scientists at Facebook have published a paper showing that they manipulated the content seen […]
I love that you included the Facebook Status Kramer posted. I found that while I was trying to find hyperlinks and it was definitely very helpful in seeing both sides of the issue at hand. I never even thought about bolding text to make those certain phrases stick out to the reader. It was very helpful.
Very well done, I agree with the above poster. I’ve got no problem italicizing but for some reason I’ve subconsciously strayed away from bolded text. After seeing this, I may have to analyze when there is proper bold text usage in my own writing. It gives a very subtle impact.
I like that additional text == with Kramer’s defense. As you see, this is a much richer issue than the original text gives. This often happens with student “papers.” You have this great topic, but don’t tell us enough about it, give us a richer insight into the huge debate at hand. Hopefully this work is a reminder to you all about how important it is to fully develop and flesh out interesting ideas in a paper. : ) Great work Imelda!