Blog 09, Nutrient Deficiency

 Based on the information in this chapter, which groups are most at risk for nutrient deficiencies? What else would you like to know about diets in those groups to help identify ways to reduce those risks? (Moshfegh, 2015)

 

The body requires various crucial nutrients such as vitamins and minerals for development and prevention of diseases. These nutrients aren’t naturally produced in the body, we obtain them from the food we eat every day. A nutrient deficiency occurs when the body doesn’t receive sufficient amount of nutrients. Adequate nutrition is composed of sufficient intake of macronutrients and micronutrients, the combination of which provide energy, nutrients, vitamins, and minerals (Pinard, Yaroch, & Smith 2015). Every individual wants long and productive life, and consuming nutritional food is a powerful tool in achieving desired life (Moshfegh, 2015). Unfortunately, this is not an easy task and there are many who suffer from nutrient deficiencies.

The amount of nutrients needed differs according to age. Despite the diversity of foods available, most Americans have diets falling below recommended minimums for certain nutrients and above maximums for others (Drewnowski, Maillot, & Rehm, 2012). The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are nutrient reference values developed by the Institute of Medicine of The National Academies. These values are intended to serve as a guide for nutritional intake. In 2005-2008, almost all the individuals regardless of their age had diets below the DRI recommendations for potassium, dietary fiber, and vitamins D and E and above the DRI for sodium (Moshfegh, 2015). Also, one-third to one-half of individuals failed to meet the DRI recommended amount of Magnesium, Calcium, Vitamins A and C, and Folate (Moshfegh, 2015). The author of this chapter Moshfegh states that higher number of females did not meet the recommendation for folate and iron. 20 percent of females fourteen years and older did not meet the recommendation of folate and 15 percent of females fourteen years to fifty years did not meet the recommendation of iron (Moshfegh, 2015).

Studies have shown that food consumed outside the home has a high amount of fat and saturated fat, which Americans over consume and lower in nutrients like calcium, fiber and iron, which Americans under consume (Moshfegh, 2015). Consequently, the individuals who frequently consume outside food are more likely to be at risk of nutrient deficiencies. Additionally, eating out is positively associated with increased body weight and obesity (USDA & DHHS, 2010).

Meal patterns and snacking frequency play a significant role in individual’s nutrient intake. In 2007-2008, two-thirds of the individuals reported have the three meal pattern of breakfast, lunch, and dinner. Whites compared to blacks and Hispanics were more likely to eat three meals a day. Also, those in higher income households were more likely to have three meals a day than to those in lower income households (Moshfegh, 2015).  These three meals help body to sustain and obtain nutrients. So, as per these statistics blacks, Hispanics and those with lower incomes are more likely to be at risk for nutrient deficiencies. The author Moshfegh also states that Teens are less likely to consume three meals a day, making them vulnerable to nutrient deficiency (Moshfegh, 2015).

A breakfast is often considered the most important meal of the day. A well-balanced breakfast offers an important nutritional foundation for a productive and healthy day, at any age (Concannon, 2014). In a study about breakfast in America in 2001-2002, Americans ate about one-fourth of breakfasts away from home, which often included soda, bacon and sausage, sweet rolls, fried potatoes, breakfast sandwiches, and eggs (Moshfegh, 2015).

On the other hand, when eating at home, Americans more frequently reported eating ready-to-eat cereal, milk, fruits, and juice (Moshfegh, 2015). The majority of breakfast consumed outside the home was less nutritional and filled with fats and saturated fats. Skipping breakfast is particularly common among teens and young adults, blacks, and those with lower family income. Compared to thirty years ago, the groups with the largest decline in eating breakfast are children and adolescents (Moshfegh, 2015).  Consequently, those who frequently consume breakfast outside the home, make unhealthy food choices, altogether skip the breakfast are more likely to be at risk of nutrient deficiency. Skipping breakfast means losing out on critical nutrients (Moshfegh, 2015).

Lunch is as important as breakfast. It replenishes our bodies from the morning activities, energizes or bodies, and gets us through the day until dinner (Moshfegh, 2015). So, by skipping lunch one essentially skips the nutrients needed to get through the day. Males over 70 years old, blacks, Hispanics and those with lower family income are more likely to skip the lunch (Moshfegh, 2015). As a result making these groups more likely to be at risk of nutrient deficiency. On the other hand, very few people have reported skipping dinner, which provides the largest proportion of the many nutrients.

Apart from the three pattern meal, Americans frequently report snacking. Often, these snacks are unhealthy and are very likely to contribute to obesity and nutrient deficiency (Moshfegh, 2015). Dietary guidelines for Americans recommend that vegetables and fruits should make half of plate, however, one out of four Americans report eating none at all (Moshfegh, 2015). Those with lower incomes and Hispanic individuals reported consuming fewer vegetables and fruits as compared to higher income individuals, blacks and white (Moshfegh, 2015).

The facts and information provided by the author Moshfegh suggests that those with lower income, those with Hispanic ethnicity, and blacks are more likely to be at risk for nutrient deficiency than whites. To help identify and reduce these risks we need to assess eating patterns of groups at risk. Also, we need to assess the information about what foods are consumed on a daily basis. The access, availability, and affordability plays a significant role in one’s food choices, to get a full picture of these groups, there is a need for assessing these factors. Additionally, health conditions and the cultural significance of food consumption should also be taken into account. Apart from diets, examining the differences in diets by demography and geography will help to identify ways to decrease these risks.

This infographic helps us to understand the importance of investing in the nutrition development.

Source: The Hunger Project, 2015

References,

 

Concannon, K., & U.S. Department of Agriculture. (2014). Healthy Breakfast, Healthy Future. Retrieved from http://blogs.usda.gov/2014/03/11/healthy-breakfast-healthy-future/

 

Drewnowski, A., Maillot, M., & Rehm, C. (2012). Reducing the Sodium-Potassium Ratio in the US Diet: A Challenge for Public Health. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 96, 439–444.

 

Moshfegh, A. (2015). Food Consumptions in the United States. In R. A. Neff (Ed.), Introduction to the US Food System: Public Health, Environment, and Equity (pp. 373-398). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

 

Pinard, C. A., Yaroch, A. L., & Smith, T. M. (2015). Nutrition. In R. A. Neff (Ed.), Introduction to the US Food System: Public Health, Environment, and Equity (pp. 399-423). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

 

The Hunger Project [Online Image]. (2015). Investing in Nutrition. Retrieved from http://www.nutritionunplugged.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/08/whalebb4.jpg

 

US Department of Agriculture and US Department of Health and Human Services. (2010). Dietary guidelines for Americans, 2010 (7th ed.). Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.
 

 

5 thoughts on “Blog 09, Nutrient Deficiency

  1. Blog IX Critique

    1. Thesis is well articulated and clearly focused
    Thesis is well articulated and clearly focused. I could clearly understand your argument and presentation of nutrient deficiency. The structure of your writing was very clear and the chunking used in your writing appropriately closed one part of your argument and introduced another very well. Your description of meals at various times and the levels of deficiency among various groups explained well concerns for nutrient deficiency.
    2. Essay is organized logically and very well-written
    Essay was very well organized and well-written. Using chunks and writing in concise informative statements showed your ability to organize your writing logically. The information provided throughout your post was appropriate and focused on the question-very well written.
    3. References cited are focused and fully support the thesis of the essay
    The references cited were well focused and fully supported the thesis of the essay. Six references were provided along with an image that provided a very effective visual of the some of the dynamics of nutrition and malnutrition. Referencing multiple chapters from the text provides multiple sources of validity and professional references.
    4. Additional sources are of professional quality and where necessary, quantity
    Additional sources are of professional quality and where necessary quantity. Six references were provided along with an image. All were very relevant to your argument and appropriate in placement and content to support your writing. Referencing both the food consumption chapter and nutrition chapter provided text information effective in addressing your question.
    5. Argument is well-made with adequate support from the literature
    Argument is well made with adequate support from the literature. Using multiple chapters from the text allowed you to add to other effective references in making a great argument regarding malnutrition. The information you provided, starting with physiological need for nutrients, then identifying meals throughout the day and addressing their appropriateness, and eventually discussing how various races experience malnutrition at various levels made a well composed argument.
    6. Conclusion emerges logically from evidence presented
    Conclusion emerges logically from the evidence presented. Very effective closing for your argument and with the various topics included in your writing your conclusion were clear and effective in better explaining some of the dynamics of malnutrition.
    7. Bibliographic format and internal referencing are correct
    Bibliographic formatting and internal referencing are correct. Your use of tools to assist in creating your bibliography and internal referencing are allowing you include this in your argument with no errors-as always great job with references.
    8. Essay includes clean and proofed grammar, spelling and sentence structure
    The essay includes clean and proofed grammar, spelling, and sentence structure. I found no errors in spelling, grammar, or sentence structure. Your method for proofing your argument has allowed you to create a writing free from error. Sentence structure and paragraph structure were done very well, allowing for smooth transition in reading throughout the argument- very well written blog that is a very valuable question to consider and address in the U.S. currently.

  2. 1. Thesis is well-articulated and clearly focused
    You did a nice job of introducing the topic and explaining why nutrition is important. I especially liked this sentence: “… consuming nutritional food is a powerful tool in achieving desired life.” The idea of food as powerful is, well, powerful! This will age me, but it made me think of Popeye and his spinach!

    http://theprobar.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/Popeye-Spinach.jpg

    2. Essay is organized logically and very well-written
    Your essay was logically organized and very easy to read. Good use of chunking and seguing from one topic to the next.

    3. References cited are focused and fully support the thesis of the essay
    Your resources were good and used to support your arguments. Including some current statistics really helped make your point, however, be careful when you cite statistics from the textbook which they cited from another source. Technically they should both be given credit in your essay.

    4. Additional sources are of professional quality and where necessary, quantity
    I thought the poster was useful for providing an overview of the topic. I thought it was especially relevant that it addressed of bother under- and over-nourishment. I might have sized it a little smaller though, it breaks the flow of your essay a bit.

    5. Argument is well-made with adequate support from the literature
    You brought up good points about how our eating habits – eating out, unhealthy snaking, skipping meals, etc can lead to malnourishment. You noted that minority and low-income populations are at greater risk for malnourishment. This goes back to earlier in our class when we learned about food distribution and food deserts.

    Another population which you touched on but which I think is often overlooked, is the elderly. With the increase of the older generations aging in place, older people who may have less financial resources (i.e. living off social security), less physical mobility (frail, poor endurance, not driving because of declining vision, etc) are at risk for not getting enough to eat every day. I think as the baby boomers age it will become even more imperative that we consider our food distribution system and how it impacts them.

    6. Conclusion emerges logically from evidence presented
    You conclude with providing summary of at-risk populations and several areas that need to be considered if the issue of malnourishment is to be effectively addressed. However, I would argue that from the info you provided about American eating habits (fast food breakfasts, high calorie snacking, etc) that all Americans are at risk so it would be interesting to compare eating habits of the general population to minority groups or low-income groups.

    7. Bibliographic format and internal referencing are correct
    Looked good – just be aware of secondary citations (as noted above)

    8. Essay includes clean and proofed grammar, spelling and sentence structure.
    Your essay was well-edited – no glaring errors. Nice job!

  3. It is helpful if you remember both macro nutrients (proteins, carbohydrates, and fats) and micro nutrients (vitamins and minerals). The DGA 2015-2020 offers additional info.

  4. 1. Thesis is well-articulated and clearly focused
    Yes.
    2. Essay is organized logically and very well-written
    Yes.
    3. References cited are focused and fully support the thesis of the essay
    Yes. I liked the variety but I felt you overused Moshfegh as a reference. I would’ve found more references to back up what they were saying, versus taking their word alone.
    4. Additional sources are of professional quality and where necessary, quantity
    Yes. I loved your infographic! It provided a ton of information in a simple format!
    5. Argument is well-made with adequate support from the literature
    Yes.
    6. Conclusion emerges logically from evidence presented
    Yes.
    7. Bibliographic format and internal referencing are correct
    Yes except for correction below.
    8. Essay includes clean and proofed grammar, spelling and sentence structure.
    P4, S7: Citation format is incorrect. It should be, “Moshfegh (2015) also states teens are less likely…” teens needs to be lowercase. Eliminate ‘that’
    P5, S1: Remove ‘A’, capitalize ‘breakfast’

    This was well written. Throughout the blog you reference race and how it’s impacted by nutrition deficiencies so it was always clear what the topic was about and how it related to your thesis. I would’ve elaborated more on micro- and macronutrients because they were mentioned in your intro then never again in the post.

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