Tag Archives: #nugget

Research Nugget #7

Citation: Norvig, P. (2012). ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE. New Scientist,216(2889), i-8.

The article that I am doing my research nugget 7 on is titled, Artificial Intelligence.

In the real world, uncertainty takes many forms. It could be an opponent trying to prevent you from reaching your goal, say. It could be that the repercussions of one decision do not become apparent until later — you might swerve your car to avoid a collision without knowing if it is safe to do so — or that new information becomes available during a task. An intelligent program must be capable of handling all this input and more.”

an important question to ask is what is the purpose of AI? Why do we need them? How will they help us? These are the questions asked by researchers and programmers when they are designing and building different and new types of AI. A common issue that have many people confused is that when the word artificial intelligence is mentioned they automatically think of robots caring out day to day activities that normally humans will do. Instead AI can range from a huge robot to a simple program that can help make our lives easier. AI technology has been part of our day to day lives ever since the early 2000’s and they have really picked up in past couple of years. I feel that the development of AI has highly increased in cars, with all the different sensors and different cameras that detect the outside environment.

More than half a century after the introduction of AI, three key developments could augur the emergence of machine intelligence. New insights from neuroscience and cognitive science are leading to new hardware and software designs. The development of the internet provides access to a vast store of global data. It may even be possible for AI to evolve on its own” 

The evolution of AI is highly dependent on the development of other areas of studies. For everything to mix well with each other they all must be on the same level of technological advancement. Development in neuroscience and cognitive science are very important for the development of AI because it allows the AI to think at a higher level for them to expand their knowledge and evolve and learn from their surrounding environment. An AI that only has one task and cannot learn anything else is not that effective in the long run. However a AI that can learn new tasks as the days go by become highly more effective and more worthwhile.

Research Nugget 6.5

Pruthi, S. (2012). Wireless Robotics: A History, an Overview, and the Need for Standardization. Wireless Personal Communications64(3), 597-609. doi:10.1007/s11277-012-0603-9

The article that my research nugget 6 is focused on is titled, Wireless Robotics: A History, an Overview, and the Need for Standardization.

This article is talking about how the field of robotics and AI is one of the most rapidly advancing fields and how that their influence will play a big role in our future. The us of AI and robots is that they can help make our lives easier and more effective  but they will also help to improve communities and nations as a whole. How far the field of robotics will advance can only be determined but human creativity.  The two upmost important things when it comes to robotics is wireless robotics and the idea of standardization. With standardization their can be a level of stability for the development of robotics and different companies and nations will know what not and what not to do. This will ensure that certain robots are not to advanced than the rest.

“Robots attempt to solve problems and accomplish tasks that are either unsafe or inconvenient for humans, and if we as cordless creatures often cannot do these tasks, restraining a robot with wires will require a human in close proximity following the robot. Although tethered robots have been successful in some missions such as in deep-sea exploration with a tethered submersible & the Djei robot used to explore the Pyramids of Giza, however this tethering creates significant locomotive and explorative restrictions.”

“Yet, how do we design, build, and implement this robot? The current state of the industry demonstrates an inherent need for standardization. This eliminates the concern for a lack of both inter-compatibility and global scalability of research projects. If advanced Artificial Intelligence software is being developed in USA, how does one know it can be easily be inte- grated to work with next generation radios from Denmark and sensors from Japan? Often, it is not the case that minimal changes need to be made in order to ensure compatibility. Interface standardization is a definite requirement for scalable and rapid advancement.”

Nowadays everything is starting to become wireless just because it is more effective and less of a hassle to deal with multiple wires. I feel what started it all was the development of bluetooth, the ability to transfer information such as phone calls, and music from one device to another without the worry of wires. In the world of robotics, a robot that is plugged in versus and robot that is wireless, the plugged in robot can only do so much since it is restricted by a wire, so mobility is cut down as well as effectiveness to carry out the task. Now, when looking at the wireless robot, so many more options open up. Instead of worrying how far the wire can go or what events can the robot do companies are instead focused on how to program the robot to overcome obstacles in the house such as stairs, doors, furniture and so on. Also with a wired robot, I feel that you really can’t use that particular for multiple reasons.

Another important thing in the field of robotics is the idea of standardization.  I feel that with the idea of standardization it can help spread the idea of robotics and allow for the use of robotics around the world. Also with standardization countries or companies can’t really go above of what is allowed and they have to meet all standards. With the idea of standards, the robots can be universal which can help different companies collaborate together and so on.

After reading the article on “Personal Dynamic Media” it got me thinking on how the idea shows similarity to the idea of wireless technology and the issue of standaradization.

“Imagine having your own self-contained knowledge manipulator in a portable package the size and shape of an ordinary notebook. Suppose it had enough power to outrace your senses of sight and hearing, enough capacity to store for later retrieval thousands of page-equivalents of reference materials, poems, letters, recipes, records, drawings, animations, musical scores, waveforms, dynamic simulations, and anything else you would like to remember and change. “

Everything now a days is becoming portable because people are understanding the importance of mobility and accessibility. Now if the Dynabook was connected to plugs, such as a power cord and an internet cable and so on it would make the device pointless, you might as built a computer. And not only that, each Dynabook as the same ability and they are same size, not one is better than the other and so on. This allows for the ability to change information between tablets, for example if a kid wants to share his artwork with another kid it would be simple they wouldn’t run into the issue of the devices not being compatible with each other.

Research Nugget #5

Citation: Megill, J. (2014). Emotion, Cognition and Artificial Intelligence. Minds & Machines24(2), 189-199. doi:10.1007/s11023-013-9320-8

The article that I am doing my 5th research nugget on is titled as, Emotion, Cognition and Artificial Intelligence

What this article is saying is that, if AI cans function to the best of the it’s ability without the use of emotion, and just how important is emotion? It is said that without emotions, then the machines will fall short of human intelligence. One main thing that makes humans far more superior than any other species or machines, is because of our use of emotion. The article also mentioned that with the use of our emotions, certain cognition roles are strengthened. But it also mentions that because of emotions that we are weak in some areas and that is where machines will be more superior.

“One cognitive ability in which emotion seems to play a role is selective attention. It is a familiar fact that we generally focus on particular aspects of our environment while simultaneously ignoring many others; that is, some objects or events in our immediate surroundings become the focus of our attention, while others do not. “

“In sum, there is a massive (and growing) amount of empirical evidence from neuroscience and cognitive psychology that shows that emotion plays an important role in certain cognitive abilities (attention, the frame problem, facial recognition and so on) and so in cognition in general. One reoccurring theme is that emotions serve as ‘‘cognitive bookmarks’’ that give some cognitive states or objects in the environment a certain salience or importance over others etc. It appears that emotion often governs the flow of information. Emotion helps determine the information that we notice in our environment; the information that will get stored in memory; the information in our memory that will be brought to mind in a certain situation; and so on. “

One thing that emotion plays is out cognitive skills, and they range from many different aspects. One main thing is the skill of selective attention in which we focus on certain  aspects while ignoring the rest.  For example, if a group of humans were in the jungle and all of a sudden a fire started, their main focus will be the fire because of fear, and they would ignore everything else around them such as poisonous plants, or animals and so on. With machines and their lack of emotion, the issue of selective attention will not be present, instead they will be focused on all different aspects of the environment around them. So lets create another scenario. two different building fires, two teams of firefighters go into  each of the building, a team of humans and a team of machines. The building that the humans go into, they hear screams of civilians trapped in the upper floors and they rush to their rescue, only after saving them will the worry about the fire. On the other hand, the team of machines, while looking  at the fire, they also hear screams of civilians, but instead of rushing to their rescue they scan the rest of the building and instead find a way to subdue the fire then go in. They don’t understand that fire imposes fear into humans but they instead do what is logically and mathematically correct. Now this method can be both a good thing and a bad thing.

A good thing in the aspect that these machines will do what is right and what is most effective rather than putting their life at risk. If they think that putting out the fire is more important than going in and saving civilians they will do that. However, they don’t have that value for human life if emotion is not part of their programming. This is what humans more superior, we will risk our lives to save others because of emotion, sometimes if we don’t do anything we have that guilt for the rest of our lives, unlike machines.

 

Research Nugget #4

Citation: Giles, J. (2011). Brain donors. New Scientist210(2818), 42-45.

The article that I will be researching further into is called  Brain Donors.

What this article is telling us, is that AI technology has a long way to go. Artificial Intelligence still struggles to complete normal tasks that humans can perform easily. And if it runs into an issue that it was not programmed to solve, how then can they solve it? The answer to that is now a days AI has the ability to link to other servers where human assistants help AI’s when the face issues that they cannot solve. The humans that help the AI are known as Turkers and they send information to the AI to solve the problem. AI’s were first tested with the usage of games such as chess and crosswords. While playing these games they will be scanning everything possible and if something does not work for them they will send a single to these Turkers for help. The purpose of these Turkers is to help the AI to learn where they went wrong and teach them what to do, so next time they will be better prepared for a similar situation. But these type of AI are not traditional AI but instead hybrid intelligence, a mix of machine and us.

“Today’s artificial intelligence still struggles to complete tasks we humans can do with ease. But an ingenious solution to these shortcomings is emerging and it is set to transform our relationship with machines. If an artificial intelligence (AI) encounters a problem it cannot solve, now it can turn to the internet, where thousands of human workers are waiting to assist it. Some people do it for money, while for others it’s fun. In fact, chances are you have already helped a machine do its job and not even realized it. We are creating hybrid intelligences, and they can outperform standard AI in all sorts of ways. So perhaps it’s time to reconsider the science-fiction vision of autonomous assistants with fully artificial minds. The smartest machines in the future may instead be “reverse cyborgs” — artificial intelligences augmented by us — a mix of programming, transistors and the donated brainpower of an army of human workers.”

“AI is all around us, but it is far from perfect. Computers can recognise well-lit common objects and understand the enunciated words of a newsreader, but real life is not so neat. Our language is packed with puns, metaphors and idioms. We all speak in different accents. And we continually encounter unfamiliar environments and objects. Until machines can deal with such challenges, AI goals such as robot companions will remain a fantasy. If a machine cannot understand what you are saying or move around safely, how can you expect it to load your dishwasher?”

These two nuggets show how AI technology is lacking and the effects of that in the future. I mean it is true, if AI cannot learn then what is the point of them? Whenever they come face to face with a problem that they are not programmed to handle, do we really need them? Like mentioned in the second nugget if AIs can understand our normal language with all puns included and the different accents they will be nothing but a waste of money and time. Because if an AI can’t understand different accents or different puns from around the world then what is their benefit. Aren’t AI supposed to make things simpler for us? With the idea of hybrid intelligence we are getting our money’s worth. Because not only are we getting an AI we are also getting an AI that can learn and that will continually learn new things everyday. Also at no point will they be on their own, because the more we learn we more we share and humans are always learning and in turn so are these HI. Also with the HI they have the dependency on humans so at no point can they act out since we will always have control over them making them less of a risk for the future.

 

Nugget Assignment #4: “Ted Nelson’s Computer Lib/Dream Machines”

“Computers are simply a necessary and enjoyable part of life, like food and books. Computers are not everything, they are just an aspect of everything, and not to know this is computer illiteracy, a silly and dangerous ignorance. ”

The reason that choose this nugget was because of how true it is. Now a days, with the advancement of technology everything can be found online, from the phone number of a local restaurant to the the purchase of a car. Almost anything can be done online and having a computer has become a necessary thing in everyday life in order to stay up to date with everything. It says that computers are simply necessary and enjoyable part of life, like food and books. But don’t we need food in order to survive, yes it is true that we don’t need to eat for a week or two but we eventually need food. Just like how you might not need a computer right now but in a year or so you need a computer in order to thrive in the type of society that we live in. A society where everything is changing from manual to  mechanical.

When I was growing up,  it was rare for a child to have a computer but the moment I entered high school, I learned that I needed a laptop in order to do my homework. Now a days kids are early has middle school needs to purchase a laptop before school starts and they are required to have the laptops with them at all times during school hours.

s. Children Using Computers in, Classroom

 

Also, in order to be a competitive person in whatever field that you are studying or currently in, it is imperative that you stay on top of everything, whether it be on the latest trends, the newest advancements in your field and so on. And the best and effective way to achieve this is through a computer, yes you can go through newspapers and find articles in magazines but that will take way to long, instead using a computer will help you find what you are searching for faster and more effective.

In the last part of the nugget it mentions that not having a computer is computer illiteracy which can be dangerous and foolish. The computer is the stepping stone to every single other technological advancement out. If you don’t know how to use something as basic as a computer, then how will you be able to use other technology?

 

Like mentioned earlier, you don’t need a computer to survive and be the best that you can been in society, however getting and learning how to use a computer will help you ten folds and will help you to become more successful in the future.

Nugget Assignment #3: “Augmenting Human Intellect”

The entire effect of an individual on the world stems essentially from what he can transmit to the world through his limited motor channels. This in turn is based on information received from the outside world through limited sensory channels; on information, drives, and needs generated within him; and on his processing of that information. His processing is of two kinds: that which he is generally conscious of (recognizing patterns, remembering, visualizing, abstracting, deducing, inducing, etc.), and that involving the unconscious processing and mediating of received and self-generated information, and the unconscious mediating of conscious processing itself.”

When I came upon this section while reading the article titled “Augmenting Human Intellect” it immediately caught my eye. I feel that this “nugget” is trying to convey that for someone to make a difference in the world they don’t need to come from a family that is made of money or from a family that has a high status in society. But instead, for a person to make a an effect on the world they should use the information that they can get from the world around and if they can’t get certain resources they should overcome that hurdle and have that drive in order to achieve what they need to achieve. If the face issues in order to get their ideas out to the world due to bigger forces such as the government, or the church they should do what they can to get their idea out to the world. Throughout history, their are many examples of individuals who did’t have everything in front of them, but they still managed to pull through and make a difference.

A person that comes to my mind right away is Charles Darwin. We all know that Charles Darwin changed the ideology on where we as humans come from and how we evolved. This was known as his theory of evolution and all of this took place during his voyage, during his voyage his published his famous book, “The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection”. This book showed all of his work with different species, such as the finches and also had the research that showed how each finch related to each other. When publishing this book he faced a huge hurdle from the Church. During that time everyone believed that God created the world and that he created man and every creature. When he faced the hurdle, he could have stopped and not questioned the Church. However, Darwin knew that he was right and we going to do everything in his power so that his book can be published and shown to the public. Because of that the world was able to understand the idea of evolution and because of him more people where able to do more research into the idea.

 

As We May Think

“The human mind does not work that way. It operates by association. With one item in its grasp, it snaps instantly to the next that is suggested by the association of thoughts, in accordance with some intricate web of trails carried by the cells of the brain. It has other characteristics, of course; trails that are not frequently followed are prone to fade, items are not fully permanent, memory is transitory. Yet the speed of action, the intricacy of trails, the detail of mental pictures, is awe-inspiring beyond all else in nature.”

This passage in the article intrigued me because it states how our brain forms many different connections from just one thought.   It’s crazy to think that our thoughts are just jumping from one to another by mutual connections.  Human brains are fascinating and have yet to be completely mapped out.  There is so much we don’t know about our brain and its potential.  Our mind is full of thoughts that are just added from our previous thought.  They’re all connected in some sort of way.  Some thoughts are connected more than others.  These thoughts connects to each other because they are carried by cells of the brain that have been connected to other various events and memories.  Our memory is always changing due the fact that our brain is always moving so fast paced from the different thoughts.  But sometimes, we don’t realize how fast our thoughts are moving.  Thoughts are actually faster than the speed of light, and the proof includes deja vu.  Deja vu is when your brain exceeds the speed of light and makes time twitch.  The trails that our brain has from one thought to another is quite intricate.  The complexity of them is far more than we can understand.  The detail of the pictures, memories, and thoughts that we remember are so elaborate and clear because our minds sync every detail we tell it to remember.  Crazy, huh?

Location where thoughts are located on a human brain
MRI of normal brain with full functions