Tag Archives: #research

Research Nugget #7

Citation: Norvig, P. (2012). ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE. New Scientist,216(2889), i-8.

The article that I am doing my research nugget 7 on is titled, Artificial Intelligence.

In the real world, uncertainty takes many forms. It could be an opponent trying to prevent you from reaching your goal, say. It could be that the repercussions of one decision do not become apparent until later — you might swerve your car to avoid a collision without knowing if it is safe to do so — or that new information becomes available during a task. An intelligent program must be capable of handling all this input and more.”

an important question to ask is what is the purpose of AI? Why do we need them? How will they help us? These are the questions asked by researchers and programmers when they are designing and building different and new types of AI. A common issue that have many people confused is that when the word artificial intelligence is mentioned they automatically think of robots caring out day to day activities that normally humans will do. Instead AI can range from a huge robot to a simple program that can help make our lives easier. AI technology has been part of our day to day lives ever since the early 2000’s and they have really picked up in past couple of years. I feel that the development of AI has highly increased in cars, with all the different sensors and different cameras that detect the outside environment.

More than half a century after the introduction of AI, three key developments could augur the emergence of machine intelligence. New insights from neuroscience and cognitive science are leading to new hardware and software designs. The development of the internet provides access to a vast store of global data. It may even be possible for AI to evolve on its own” 

The evolution of AI is highly dependent on the development of other areas of studies. For everything to mix well with each other they all must be on the same level of technological advancement. Development in neuroscience and cognitive science are very important for the development of AI because it allows the AI to think at a higher level for them to expand their knowledge and evolve and learn from their surrounding environment. An AI that only has one task and cannot learn anything else is not that effective in the long run. However a AI that can learn new tasks as the days go by become highly more effective and more worthwhile.

Research Nugget 6.5

Pruthi, S. (2012). Wireless Robotics: A History, an Overview, and the Need for Standardization. Wireless Personal Communications64(3), 597-609. doi:10.1007/s11277-012-0603-9

The article that my research nugget 6 is focused on is titled, Wireless Robotics: A History, an Overview, and the Need for Standardization.

This article is talking about how the field of robotics and AI is one of the most rapidly advancing fields and how that their influence will play a big role in our future. The us of AI and robots is that they can help make our lives easier and more effective  but they will also help to improve communities and nations as a whole. How far the field of robotics will advance can only be determined but human creativity.  The two upmost important things when it comes to robotics is wireless robotics and the idea of standardization. With standardization their can be a level of stability for the development of robotics and different companies and nations will know what not and what not to do. This will ensure that certain robots are not to advanced than the rest.

“Robots attempt to solve problems and accomplish tasks that are either unsafe or inconvenient for humans, and if we as cordless creatures often cannot do these tasks, restraining a robot with wires will require a human in close proximity following the robot. Although tethered robots have been successful in some missions such as in deep-sea exploration with a tethered submersible & the Djei robot used to explore the Pyramids of Giza, however this tethering creates significant locomotive and explorative restrictions.”

“Yet, how do we design, build, and implement this robot? The current state of the industry demonstrates an inherent need for standardization. This eliminates the concern for a lack of both inter-compatibility and global scalability of research projects. If advanced Artificial Intelligence software is being developed in USA, how does one know it can be easily be inte- grated to work with next generation radios from Denmark and sensors from Japan? Often, it is not the case that minimal changes need to be made in order to ensure compatibility. Interface standardization is a definite requirement for scalable and rapid advancement.”

Nowadays everything is starting to become wireless just because it is more effective and less of a hassle to deal with multiple wires. I feel what started it all was the development of bluetooth, the ability to transfer information such as phone calls, and music from one device to another without the worry of wires. In the world of robotics, a robot that is plugged in versus and robot that is wireless, the plugged in robot can only do so much since it is restricted by a wire, so mobility is cut down as well as effectiveness to carry out the task. Now, when looking at the wireless robot, so many more options open up. Instead of worrying how far the wire can go or what events can the robot do companies are instead focused on how to program the robot to overcome obstacles in the house such as stairs, doors, furniture and so on. Also with a wired robot, I feel that you really can’t use that particular for multiple reasons.

Another important thing in the field of robotics is the idea of standardization.  I feel that with the idea of standardization it can help spread the idea of robotics and allow for the use of robotics around the world. Also with standardization countries or companies can’t really go above of what is allowed and they have to meet all standards. With the idea of standards, the robots can be universal which can help different companies collaborate together and so on.

After reading the article on “Personal Dynamic Media” it got me thinking on how the idea shows similarity to the idea of wireless technology and the issue of standaradization.

“Imagine having your own self-contained knowledge manipulator in a portable package the size and shape of an ordinary notebook. Suppose it had enough power to outrace your senses of sight and hearing, enough capacity to store for later retrieval thousands of page-equivalents of reference materials, poems, letters, recipes, records, drawings, animations, musical scores, waveforms, dynamic simulations, and anything else you would like to remember and change. “

Everything now a days is becoming portable because people are understanding the importance of mobility and accessibility. Now if the Dynabook was connected to plugs, such as a power cord and an internet cable and so on it would make the device pointless, you might as built a computer. And not only that, each Dynabook as the same ability and they are same size, not one is better than the other and so on. This allows for the ability to change information between tablets, for example if a kid wants to share his artwork with another kid it would be simple they wouldn’t run into the issue of the devices not being compatible with each other.

Research Nugget #6

Pruthi, S. (2012). Wireless Robotics: A History, an Overview, and the Need for Standardization. Wireless Personal Communications64(3), 597-609. doi:10.1007/s11277-012-0603-9

The article that my research nugget 6 is focused on is titled, Wireless Robotics: A History, an Overview, and the Need for Standardization.

This article is talking about how the field of robotics and AI is one of the most rapidly advancing fields and how that their influence will play a big role in our future. The us of AI and robots is that they can help make our lives easier and more effective  but they will also help to improve communities and nations as a whole. How far the field of robotics will advance can only be determined but human creativity.  The two upmost important things when it comes to robotics is wireless robotics and the idea of standardization. With standardization their can be a level of stability for the development of robotics and different companies and nations will know what not and what not to do. This will ensure that certain robots are not to advanced than the rest.

“Robots attempt to solve problems and accomplish tasks that are either unsafe or inconvenient for humans, and if we as cordless creatures often cannot do these tasks, restraining a robot with wires will require a human in close proximity following the robot. Although tethered robots have been successful in some missions such as in deep-sea exploration with a tethered submersible & the Djei robot used to explore the Pyramids of Giza, however this tethering creates significant locomotive and explorative restrictions.”

“Yet, how do we design, build, and implement this robot? The current state of the industry demonstrates an inherent need for standardization. This eliminates the concern for a lack of both inter-compatibility and global scalability of research projects. If advanced Artificial Intelligence software is being developed in USA, how does one know it can be easily be inte- grated to work with next generation radios from Denmark and sensors from Japan? Often, it is not the case that minimal changes need to be made in order to ensure compatibility. Interface standardization is a definite requirement for scalable and rapid advancement.”

Nowadays everything is starting to become wireless just because it is more effective and less of a hassle to deal with multiple wires. I feel what started it all was the development of bluetooth, the ability to transfer information such as phone calls, and music from one device to another without the worry of wires. In the world of robotics, a robot that is plugged in versus and robot that is wireless, the plugged in robot can only do so much since it is restricted by a wire, so mobility is cut down as well as effectiveness to carry out the task. Now, when looking at the wireless robot, so many more options open up. Instead of worrying how far the wire can go or what events can the robot do companies are instead focused on how to program the robot to overcome obstacles in the house such as stairs, doors, furniture and so on. Also with a wired robot, I feel that you really can’t use that particular for multiple reasons.

Another important thing in the field of robotics is the idea of standardization.  I feel that with the idea of standardization it can help spread the idea of robotics and allow for the use of robotics around the world. Also with standardization countries or companies can’t really go above of what is allowed and they have to meet all standards. With the idea of standards, the robots can be universal which can help different companies collaborate together and so on.

 

Research Nugget #5

Citation: Megill, J. (2014). Emotion, Cognition and Artificial Intelligence. Minds & Machines24(2), 189-199. doi:10.1007/s11023-013-9320-8

The article that I am doing my 5th research nugget on is titled as, Emotion, Cognition and Artificial Intelligence

What this article is saying is that, if AI cans function to the best of the it’s ability without the use of emotion, and just how important is emotion? It is said that without emotions, then the machines will fall short of human intelligence. One main thing that makes humans far more superior than any other species or machines, is because of our use of emotion. The article also mentioned that with the use of our emotions, certain cognition roles are strengthened. But it also mentions that because of emotions that we are weak in some areas and that is where machines will be more superior.

“One cognitive ability in which emotion seems to play a role is selective attention. It is a familiar fact that we generally focus on particular aspects of our environment while simultaneously ignoring many others; that is, some objects or events in our immediate surroundings become the focus of our attention, while others do not. “

“In sum, there is a massive (and growing) amount of empirical evidence from neuroscience and cognitive psychology that shows that emotion plays an important role in certain cognitive abilities (attention, the frame problem, facial recognition and so on) and so in cognition in general. One reoccurring theme is that emotions serve as ‘‘cognitive bookmarks’’ that give some cognitive states or objects in the environment a certain salience or importance over others etc. It appears that emotion often governs the flow of information. Emotion helps determine the information that we notice in our environment; the information that will get stored in memory; the information in our memory that will be brought to mind in a certain situation; and so on. “

One thing that emotion plays is out cognitive skills, and they range from many different aspects. One main thing is the skill of selective attention in which we focus on certain  aspects while ignoring the rest.  For example, if a group of humans were in the jungle and all of a sudden a fire started, their main focus will be the fire because of fear, and they would ignore everything else around them such as poisonous plants, or animals and so on. With machines and their lack of emotion, the issue of selective attention will not be present, instead they will be focused on all different aspects of the environment around them. So lets create another scenario. two different building fires, two teams of firefighters go into  each of the building, a team of humans and a team of machines. The building that the humans go into, they hear screams of civilians trapped in the upper floors and they rush to their rescue, only after saving them will the worry about the fire. On the other hand, the team of machines, while looking  at the fire, they also hear screams of civilians, but instead of rushing to their rescue they scan the rest of the building and instead find a way to subdue the fire then go in. They don’t understand that fire imposes fear into humans but they instead do what is logically and mathematically correct. Now this method can be both a good thing and a bad thing.

A good thing in the aspect that these machines will do what is right and what is most effective rather than putting their life at risk. If they think that putting out the fire is more important than going in and saving civilians they will do that. However, they don’t have that value for human life if emotion is not part of their programming. This is what humans more superior, we will risk our lives to save others because of emotion, sometimes if we don’t do anything we have that guilt for the rest of our lives, unlike machines.

 

Research Nugget #2

After more research off my topic, AI can help the future or not, I found two different nuggets that show how curious we are of the future development of AI technology and the different technologies that can arise of AI. My first nugget is taken from from the article titled, The Age of Intelligent Machines | The Social Impact of Artificial Intelligence

“Is artificial intelligence in human society a utopian dream or a Faustian nightmare? Will our descendants honor us for making machines do things that human minds do or berate us for irresponsibility and hubris? Either of these judgments might be made of us, for like most human projects this infant technology is ambivalent. Just which aspects of its potential are realized will depend largely on social and political factors.”

I feel that this nugget is asking us on why are we even creating artificial intelligence and are we using it for the for the right purpose?? It says that the evolution of AI is highly relatable on social and political factors, if the government wants a higher influence of AI in the country and all they have to do is say the magic word and the advancement of AI will skyrocket like no other. AI innovation can  go into many fields such history, or english but I feel that they biggest area where AI will have the most effect is in the field of science. In the article titled, The Creation of Artificial Cells and Artificial Intelligence it talks about the creation of artificial cells.

The creation of this Artificial Cell is generating an ethical controversy that the usage can be for the positive or negative. Programmable Artificial Cell Evolution (Pace) began April 2004 as a collaboration between Chalmers and 15 other partners in Europe and USA.”

This nugget is only give slight info on how AI technology can increase and one way is through the development of artificial cells. With the development of AC (artificial cells) the field of medicine goes to a whole another. With the help of AC surgery and other medical procedures can have better results because the AC have the ability to heal the body at a faster rate.

Research Nugget #1

For my research project I will be focusing on Artificial Intelligence and whether or not they will benefit mankind in the future. My topic question is, How will Artificial Intelligence help the future and in what aspect? And is their a potential downside to the evolution of Artificial Intelligence?

My first nugget is taken from the article titled, Artificial Intelligence: A Virtual Reality?

“But because computers are ineluctably stamped with the human imprint, we must bear the responsibility for the future of computer technology. It is possible, after all, to guide the development of a computerized intelligence for either good or for ill. Knowing the human propensity for evil, we must determine to build only the good into any future artificial intelligences we may create.”

I feel that this nugget is telling us that the creation of computers comes from us humans and that we have the tendency to put our own traits into things that we create. The nugget warns us that we must be careful how on we create these computers, because we can possibly lead the computers to a path that is evil which will create a horrible future for mankind. So it is our duty to create these computers with good, and by that I mean that we must create the computers to do good and not evil. The only way to address this issue is buy on how we create the computers. In an article titled, Artificial Intelligence it tells us that we can create computers and AI in two different manners.

“Historically there were two main approaches to AI: classical approach (designing the AI), based on symbolic reasoning or a connectionist approach (letting AI develop), based on artificial neural networks.”

We can create computers and AI through two different approaches, the classical approach in which we design the AI and we tell the AI what to do. Then the AI does those actions only, nothing more and nothing else. However if we decide to build the computers and AI through the connectionist approach then we are dealing with a whole other ball game. The connectionist approach allows us to build AI but we create them in the fashion that they will learn what they need to do, whether they should do good or evil, what is right and what is wrong and this is all possible with the implantations  of artificial neural networks which make the AI act human as possible. If carried out this way then we do not know what will become of our future, however if the classical approach was taken then we know what to expect and what not to expect.