Annotated Bibliography

James A. Roberts, Chris Pullig, Chris Manolis, I need my smartphone: A hierarchical model of personality and cell-phone addiction, Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 79, June 2015 (

The researchers for this two-part study test their hypothesis to find out certain personality traits that pertain to excess cell phone usage. They find over 300 college students and had them fill out a survey about the need for arousal and the measures of materialism. The study was measured on different personality trait scales and impulsiveness scales. The data was analyzed through a process of structural equation modeling. What the researcher found was that the central trait for cell phone addiction was attention impulsiveness. Other traits such as emotional instability, introversion, and materialism were found in correlation with the addiction.

Leung, Louis. “Predicting Internet Risks: A Longitudinal Panel Study of Gratifications-sought, Internet Addiction Symptoms, and Social Media Use among Children and Adolescents.” Taylor&Francis Online. Health Psychology and Behavioral Medicine, 31 Mar. 2015. Web. 29 Nov. 2015.

The researcher, Louis Leung surveyed 400 adolescents through a longitudinal panel survey to test his hypothesis on social media relation to addiction symptoms and Internet usage risks. He collected data in two waves in one year. The second wave showed the scale of addiction. The first wave showed that by controlling age, gender, education and criterial scores in Internet addiction predicted that there would be an increase in instant messaging and entertainment usage. The internet risks the researcher controlled included: harassment, privacy exposed, and pornographic or violent content. Leung was able to identify which adolescents would likely carry over the development of Internet addiction through the controlled risk usage.

Konnikova, Maria. “How Facebook Makes Us Unhappy – The New Yorker.” The New Yorker. N.p., 10 Sept. 2013. Web. 30 Nov. 2015.

I found this article very interesting because the author Maria Konnikova covered the topic on how she found studies that the progressed usage of Facebook correlates with increased loneliness. A recent study from the University of Michigan discovered that through a study of texting 82 participants five times a day. They wanted to figure out their level of loneliness , the time they spent on Facebook, and the interaction they had with previous people they messaged. He found that the participant’s satisfaction declined progressively towards the end of the study. Yet another study in 2009 by Sebastián Valenzuela and his colleagues thought the opposite of unhappiness. They found that Facebook increased social trust and engagement with others with increased usage.

Tsukayama, Hayley. “Teens Spend Nearly Nine Hours Every Day Consuming Media.” Washington Post. The Washington Post, 3 Nov. 2015. Web. 30 Nov. 2015.

The family technology non-profit group Common Sense Media states that teenagers are spending about nine hours on their cell phones daily and between the ages of 8 and 12 years about six hours daily is spent. Yet, through this study tweens and teens that come from a lower-income family spend more time on social media than higher-income families. Many parents have different approaches when it comes to their children’s cell-phone usage. The author then focuses on statistics of parental control over phones. 53% of teens and 72% of tweens say that their parents monitor their usage of social media through conversations. She concludes that many students feel withdrawals from their phone if it is taken for a certain period of time because when there isn’t a device in front of a person then they tend to look at their phone for attention stated by psychologist, Timothy Wilson.

Stein, Emma. “Is Social Media Dependence a Mental Health Issue? | The Fix.” The Fix. The Fix, 4 Apr. 2014. Web. 30 Nov. 2015.

The author Emma Stein wrote this article to figure out if social media addiction is the “new” addiction of the 21st century. The article states that there are two sides to social media usage. Social media can benefit through communication with others and express personality yet it can have negative consequences with over usage. Dr. Langer states in the article that the main problem for teens that overuse social media is the exposure of pictures of other teens under the influence of drugs and alcohol. He believes that teens tend to glamorize these influences, which would then increase peer pressure. Dr. Jaffe, director of education in who holds a Ph.D. in Psychology and serves as the Director of Research, Education, and Innovation at Alternatives, an addiction treatment program states that people are having withdrawals and treat social media as a drug that they cant stay away form. He believes that teens are showing addiction-like symptoms.

Armstrong, Phillips, & Saling. (2000). Potential determinants of heavier internet usage. International Journal of Human – Computer Studies, 53(4), 537-550.

The authors Philips, Armstrong, and Saling from the University of Monash

The authors Philips, Armstrong, and Saling from the University of Monash, psychology department have made assumptions of the possible determinants excessive Internet usage in today’s society. They believe that heavy Internet usage has arisen from pre-existing mechanisms. They predicted that people with poor self-esteem will have an association with using the internet more than others. To collect their data they used an Internet Related Problem Scale and gathered over fifty participants. The scale showed that people with poorer self-esteem had higher scores but impulsivity did not.

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