Annotated Bibliography: Marijuana and Schizophrenia Conundrum
My research on the relationship between the use of marijuana and the chronic brain disorder has established two major different views on the issue. One perspective for the use of marijuana to treat schizophrenic patients, in which researchers claim that it’s more useful drug than the current treatment medications. On the second hand, other researchers claim that the use marijuana has the same symptoms as that of schizophrenia and has negative effect in the brain. Mostly from medical concerns, issues arise as scientists all over the world carry out various experiments to determine and clarify the effects of marijuana on schizophrenic patients.
To begin with, I found sources that investigates the effect of marijuana on the brain, one that supports the use of marijuana and the other that states the negative effects on the brain from the use of marijuana. Different research techniques, technology, and varying intentions of the experiment accounts for the differences in the approaches about the topic. As one author conducts an experiment in an attempt to clarify the effect of marijuana on the brain uses a different approach to the research, from the use of different technology to techniques that leads to varying results and conclusions of the experiment. In Castle and colleagues’ Marijuana and Madness, the authors highlight the effect of marijuana to the brain in relation to brain disorder schizophrenia and conclude that dose-depending marijuana use impairs the cognition and psychomotor functioning, however, the prolonged use of cannabis does not create irreversible neuropsychological deficits. In their research, Weiland, Thayer, and Depue conduct various experiments suggesting that there is no association between marijuana use and the differences in shapes/structures of the brain. These two sources take on a different approach to the topic and use different research techniques, which could have led to varying results.
The newspaper article by Reuters “Comparing Schizophrenia Drugs” found in the New York Times states that a new drug should be under consideration to treat schizophrenia as the current treatment medication causes severe side effects for the patients. This source is supported by the Maia Szalavitz’s article, in which she also claims that treatment medication for schizophrenia should be replaced with alternate medications, such as marijuana. The same research approach, as both of the authors had similar hypothesis and similar studies or evidence accounts for similarity between the sources.
The differences and similarities indicate that the topic has different bias and perspectives dealing with the indications of marijuana leading to schizophrenia. Some researchers claim that it is a clear phenomenon that marijuana is a drug that changes an individual’s disposition, therefore, it is plausible for it to cause schizophrenia in some people, while other researchers conduct experiments that counter argue most studies. Cultural, religious, and political assumptions do not play that big of a role in these sources, except for the newspaper article, as all of them are research based and have scientific evidence leading to their conclusion. Potential ethical dilemmas are inevitable as treating chronic brain disorders with the use of marijuana.
Solutions to the issue could be further research to accurately demonstrate the relationship between marijuana and schizophrenia. Newer technology and collaborated work could lead to the precise prediction of the effect of marijuana on the treatment of schizophrenia. These perspectives will assist me in formulating a solution for my unit 3 topic as I can use all these sources to support my argument and my counterargument against the use of marijuana in schizophrenic patients. As I plan to take on the stance against the use of marijuana, I will use the sources found to support my hypothesis along with alternate sources the authors cited in their work.
Rodrigo, Chaturaka, and Senaka Rajapakse. “Cannabis and Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders: A Review of Clinical Studies.” National Center for Biotechnology Information. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 28 Dec. 0005. Web. 19 March 2015.
The authors, who have also been researching on the mental illness, refer to separate studies and experiments indicating the effect of marijuana on individuals that are predisposed to the chronic brain disorder, schizophrenia. The hypothesis that marijuana causes more positive symptoms with cognitive deficits in schizophrenic patients than negative symptoms is sustained by varying studies and interventions. These studies and intervention show that those with lifetime dependence, high-frequency use and with more recent use performed better in some or several components of cognitive testing. Cannabis use is associated with enhanced cognitive function in schizophrenia.
This source found on the web for U.S. National Library of Medicine is useful for this topic. The validity of this source is also demonstrated through the citations and references to other work based on the same subject. As the writers are scientists and have carried out experiments to prove their hypothesis, the source becomes even more valid and useful. It compares to other sources in my bibliography as the writers carry out various experiments to support their theory. The source does not seem to contain any bias because the writers address both the positive and negative effects of marijuana on schizophrenic patients and support their claim using science. The goal of this source is to demonstrate and inform the readers of the positive effects of marijuana on the treatment of schizophrenic patients.
This source was really helpful to me because it helps me shape my argument using valid experiments carried out by scientists. The source was also found on an academic website related to medicine so I can use it in my research as a logical scientific support. It did change the way I thought about my topic because I was against the use of marijuana for schizophrenic patients but if they have carried out several research on the topic, it could be that marijuana can help some patients.
Weiland, Barbara, Rachel Thayer, and Brendan Depue. “Daily Marijuana Use Is Not Associated with Brain Morphometric Measures in Adolescents or Adults.” The Journal of Neuroscience. The Society of Neuroscience. 28 Jan. 2015. Web. 03 Apr. 2015.
To determine the short term and long term effects of marijuana, the writers conduct various experiments suggesting that marijuana use is associated with shape and volumetric differences in the structure of the brain. The study examined brain morphology in samples of adults: users, non-users along with a sample of adolescent: users, and non-users. The experimenters acquired high-resolution MRI scans to investigate differences in gray matter (tissue in the brain that processes information) using morphometric measures (measurement of brain structures) to evaluate the change in brain structure, in regions of the frontal lobe such as amygdala (fear, aggression), hippocampus (memory), and cerebellum (cognitive function). When the samples were controlled for alcohol use, gender, and age, they found that there is no association between marijuana use and the differences in shapes/structures of the brain
This source is just as useful for this topic compared to the sources based specifically on the schizophrenia and marijuana correlation. It compares to other sources in the bibliography as it discusses effects of marijuana on the brain and cognitive function. The source is reliable as the writers themselves carry out the experiment and simply write their lab report, from their methods used to the results and discussion of the entire experiment. The source does not seem to contain any bias because the authors address both the negative and positive effects of marijuana discussed in other studies and they perform an experiment to determine the results instead of taking sides based on facts. The goal of this source clarify the effects of marijuana on the brain and its cognitive function.
This source was helpful for my research as it experimentally demonstrates the effect of marijuana to the brain. This relates to my topic of schizophrenia and marijuana conundrum in that schizophrenic patients have impaired cognitive functions and abnormal shape/ structure of regions of the brain including the frontal lobe and gray matter, both of which is discussed in the source. The result of the experiment that marijuana use shows no association with damage to the structure of the brain, shows that it positively correlates with schizophrenia, showing evidence that it does not cause the same effects as that of a brain disorder and will have no further damage to the brain to schizophrenic patients.
Castle, David J., D’ Souza, Deepak., and Robin M. Murray. Marijuana and Madness: Psychiatry and Neurobiology. New York: Cambridge UP, 2004. Print.
In this book, Castle, D’ Souza, and Murray highlight the effect of marijuana to the brain in relation to brain disorder schizophrenia. The authors discuss the roots of the marijuana plant itself, stating that it consists of the CB1 and CB2, which inhibit a variety of neurotransmitters in the brain, although the correlation of cannabis intoxication and the brain function is still not precise. They allude to a series of studies and experiments done by scientists all over the world to provide scientific evidence throughout the text. They provide statistical and graphical evidence to determine the effect of marijuana use to the brain. The authors conclude that dose-depending marijuana use impairs the cognition and psychomotor functioning, however, the prolonged use of cannabis does not create irreversible neuropsychological deficits.
The source stands as a very useful source as it contains a lot of information about my research topic. It’s different from other sources as the authors use many different studies to prove their claim about the relation between schizophrenia and marijuana. It’s a major counterargument to the study done by Barbara Weiland and Rachel Thayer because it acts as a counter argument to the pro stance of this issue. It’s basically a book containing numerous experimental studies and facts that demonstrate the negative effects of marijuana. However, the authors also address the positive effects, so it does not contain any bias as they also use studies to show both sides of the discussion. The information is reliable because the authors provide experimental, graphical, and statistical evidence. The authors themselves are also researchers; Deepak D’ Souza is part of the Schizophrenia Research Program and Robin Murray directs the Psychiatric Research Institute. The goal of this source is to clarify and demonstrate that marijuana has negative effects to the brain, worsening the condition of schizophrenic patients but also has positive effects when not prolonged.
This source fits in my research as it shows that marijuana has negative effects on the brain, making the condition of a schizophrenic patient even worse. This was helpful to me in that I can take a stance on my topic against the use of marijuana and use it to support my hypothesis as it contains a lot of information about the drug.
Sharma, H.S. New concepts of Psychostimulant Induced Neurotoxicity. Amsterdam: Elsevier Academic, 2009. 335-396. Cannaboid Receptors in Brain. Science Direct, 6 Nov. 2009. Web. 27 Mar 2015.
In his book, H.S Sharma discusses the biochemical, cellular, and behavioral responses to marijuana. He investigates a series of cannabinoid genomic and proteomic profiles to determine the long term effects of the use of marijuana. He provides scientific evidence throughout the text to conclude that the negative effects of cannabis use does not outweigh the beneficial effects to chronically ill patients such as cancer and psychotic patients as well. Although marijuana use is addicting, which varies from individual to individual, the author states the potential benefits of endocannabinoids (substance found in marijuana and the brain itself) in brain function, immune function, and emotional behavior. Marijuana based therapeutics is also on the rise for future use.
This is a very useful source as the author digs in to the cellular and biochemical responses to marijuana and uses experimental studies and data to support his conclusion that marijuana has more positive effects than negative effects to the brain. This information is reliable as the author himself in a researcher in Cardio-Pulmonary Molecular Biology and he discusses the cellular/molecular roots of marijuana. He also uses studies from other scientists to validate his work. The source is not biased because he addresses both the negative effects and the positive effects of the use of marijuana as the goal for this source was not to support a specific hypothesis but to come to a conclusion on the issue based on many different studies.
This source helps shape my argument as I can use it take sides on the positive effects of marijuana. The studies in this source will also take me a long way on supporting my hypothesis and concluding my research. Since it’s a book, its more reliable compared to other sources in that it has been across plenty of peer reviews and the published work has been supported by many other scientists so it can be of use for a strong standing support.
Szalavitz, Maia. “Marijuana Compound Treats Schizophrenia with Few Side Effects: Clinical Trial.” Time. Time, 30 May 2012. Web. 20 March 2015.
The author, who researches information that of schizophrenic patients uses data from clinical trials and varying statistics in order to prove that CBD, a substance developed from marijuana is more suitable for the treatment of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia than the use of amisulpride and other drugs that cause harmful side effects. Her hypothesis is supported by clinical trials, which demonstrate that the brain system has elevated levels of anandamide, a natural stress reliever and antipsychotic, which lower the symptoms of schizophrenia. These clinical tests also show CBD increases this neurotransmitter, therefore, calming and relaxing the symptoms of this mental disease. Other medications also increase the risk of diabetes and weight gain along with alternate side effects. In addition, the studies also demonstrate the development of physical and mental therapy, with the use of marijuana, seems to be more useful to treat schizophrenia than the medications. The author’s prediction is supported by tests that show medications causes severe side effects that worsen the patient’s health.
It’s a useful and reliable source as the author is a neuroscience journalist and American reporter focused on science and addiction treatment. She also provides a personal insight to the issue as she was a former drug addict. She also uses various research studies to support her hypothesis. Since the goal of this source is to show that marijuana has more positive effects than those drugs used to treat schizophrenic patients, which is supported by experimental data and evidence. In terms of bias, the source targets both for and against the use of marijuana so it does not contain complete bias. However, the author does use more studies to prove the positive use of marijuana than providing equal evidence against the use of marijuana.
This source was very helpful to me because it targets both pros and cons of the use of marijuana. As it has more evidence showing positive effects of marijuana, it would help shape my argument in support of the use of marijuana to treat schizophrenic patients. It has changed how I think about my topic because it shows strong evidence that marijuana is a more suitable drug to treat schizophrenia than alternate medications.
Reuters. “Comparing Schizophrenia Drugs.” The New York Times. N.p., 21 Sept. 2008. Web. 19 March 2015.
The author, a researcher for schizophrenia, discusses the necessity of better treatments for this mental illness. The writer argues that the government should spend money to investigate and develop a new drug that is far more useful than other drugs used to treat schizophrenia that cause severe side effects. The argument is supported by studies and statistics, which prove that current treatment medications cause harmful side effects and are a major failure during the treatment of this disorder. The author states that the government’s spending on the establishment and manufacture of new drugs is highly expensive, yet the drugs are still not meeting up to the demands of the patients.
In comparison to other sources, this article is supported by Maia Szalavitz, who also states that the treatment medications should be replaces and proposes that marijuana should be one of the drugs under consideration. Although the source does provide support using research studies, it contains bias because it does not address the opposing view and provides no evidence for the counter argument. The information is quite reliable since the author uses strong support and he himself is a researcher for schizophrenia.
I could use this on my research for evidence leading to the positive effects of marijuana on schizophrenic patients. It helps shape the argument that current treatment medications are of no use and cannabis could be a better suited drug for most schizophrenic patients. It hasn’t changed how I think about my topic because it’s an alternate support along with the work of Maia Szalavitz.
Meier, Marcia. “The Marijuana and Schizophrenia Conundrum.” Pacific Standard. ___N.p., 1 Mar. 2010. Web. 25 Nov. 2012.
The author of this article cites different studies in which the correlation between marijuana and schizophrenia is demonstrated. Those who were vulnerable to psychosis were more likely to use cannabis, which in turn could contribute to an increased risk of developing mental illness. The prediction that the use of marijuana can be the cause of developing this mental illness is strongly proved through research and large studies. One of the studies by scientists at Cardiff University’s School of Medicine in Wales show that regular cannabis use among young people increased their risk of developing a psychotic illness later in life by more than 40 percent. And the more they smoked marijuana, the higher the risk. Those who smoked most frequently were more than twice as likely to develop psychosis. Researches from Translational Neuroscience Program greatly contribute to the studies cited in the article as well.
The source is useful as I can use it for my argument against the use of marijuana for schizophrenic patients. It compares to other sources in that it acts as a counterargument as the author relates the use of marijuana to the development of schizophrenia. The source is somewhat reliable as she is an award winning author and editor but she does not have any experience in the research field. Although she gathers studies to support her hypothesis, the article is still biased as she does not present the opposing view in her article.
I could use this source to support my claim that marijuana has a negative toll on schizophrenic patients and leads up to more damage to the brain.