Annotated Bibliography

*The citations are not properly indented because every time I tried to add the indent the whole spacing would be messed up and look very weird.*

Cochran, Justin, et al. “The Role Of Student Characteristics In Predicting Retention In Online Courses.” Research In Higher Education 55.1 (2014):27-48. Academic Search Complete. Web. 4 Nov. 2015

In this study, retention rates were studied for an online business course and the factors that affect retention rates were looked into. Academic factors like course variability, GPA of the student, study habits, and absenteeism were noted about individuals and studied. Personal factors such as; age, ethnicity, gender, finances, and responsibilities were also considered to be an influence in determining retention rates for student’s enrolled in an online course. The study was conducted to find out what could be done to improve retention in online courses. Correlation between certain aspects were used to suggest four ways institutions could improve retention rates. Most of these suggestions involve implementing policies and guidelines that revolve around class of the student, GPA of the student, and follow-ups being conducted with student’s who do drop an online course.


Fedynich, La Vonne. “Teaching beyond the classroom walls: The pros and cons of cyber learning.” Journal of Instructional Pedagogies 13 (2014). Web. 4 Nov. 2015.

This article directly addresses the advantages and disadvantages to online learning to inform the readers of the benefits and drawbacks to online courses. The author states that convenience is the most advantageous part of online courses. Another advantage to them is an ease on participation. This allows the shy students to be able to express their ideas and opinions better over a computer screen. A big disadvantage to online courses is the need to be ‘computer literate’ in order to succeed, not only for the students, but for the instructor as well. Lack of online access is also a disadvantage to online courses. The author also states that students who learn via the tacticle/kinesthetic modality (hands on learning) do not find online classes to be the best learning technique. These pros and cons of online courses exemplify some of the ideal strengths that students may need to have to be able to succeed in certain online courses.


Crawford-Ferre, Heather Glynn, and Lynda R. Wiest. “Effective Online Instruction In Higher Education.” Quarterly Review Of Distance Education 13.1 (2012): 11-14. Education Research Complete. Web. 4 Nov. 2015.

Online education continues to grow rapidly every year. It provides easier access to higher education and more flexibility for those with difficult schedules to work around. About 100% of public institutions consider online instruction a big part of their institutions educational future. However, online instruction is very different from face-to-face instruction. It is because of this difference that faculty must be up to date with effective methods for online teaching. A major part of online instruction needs to be having the participants interact in some sort of way while the instructor is there to offer support and guidance. Most professors new to online courses have no experience or preparation in the delivery of information via online. Proper training should be done to ensure that participants are getting the most out what can be done with an online course. Instructors admit that preparing for an online course takes much more time that preparing for a face-to-face lecture.


Fonolahi, Aluwesi Volau, M.G.M. Khan, and Anjeela Jokhan. “Are Students Studying in the Online Mode Faring as Well as Students Studying in the Face-to-face Mode? Has Equivalence in Learning Been Achieved?”MERLOT: Journal of Online Learning and Teaching 10.4 (2014). Web. 4 Nov. 2015.

This study directly compared an online course and a face-to-face course and took various statistics from each course. The study showed that online courses gave out more work to complete and turn in for a grade, therefore the students were more exposed to engaged learning activities. It was showed that students in online courses had better time management and organization when it came to studying. Another big help to online students was the ability to have multiple tries on a test. This allows weaker students to have more chances to succeed. In reference to another source, it was claimed that online students were able to focus more on answering the questions on a test rather than writing down answers with pen and paper. The study showed no significant evidence that online courses or traditional courses proved to yield better results. These results can conclude that online course instruction is just as meaningful as traditional instruction.


Banna, Jinan, Meng-Fen Grace Lin, Maria Stewart, and Marie K. Fialkowski. “Interaction Matters: Strategies to Promote Engaged Learning in an Online Introductory Nutrition Course.” MERLOT: Journal of Online Learning and Teaching 11.2 (2015). Web. 4 Nov. 2015.

Three key types of interaction must occur to create an effective online course. Student-content interaction is one of the interactions and can be achieved with instructional videos, interacting with multimedia, and searching for information. Student-instructor interaction is another key factor. This revolves around the instructor gives a virtual impression of a “real” person and also reaching out to students through telephone or email. The last is student-student interaction which includes things like discussion boards, videoconferencing, and the use of social media. The study showed that students that were able to spend time with their instructors and other peers found it very beneficial to their understanding of the subject. There is framework set in stone to provide additional guidelines to increase student comfort in an online environment and promote participation. This is called The Phases of Engagement and has various steps to help students become more comfortable being online and not feel like they are being suppressed by a computer screen.


Cole, Michele T., Daniel J. Shelley, and Louis B. Swartz. “Online Instruction, E-Learning, and Student Satisfaction: A Three Year Study.” The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning 15.6 (2014). Web. 4 Nov. 2015.

This study found that students felt a strong lack of interaction with the instructor and with their classmates in this online course. One student was quoted saying, “… I have gained so much from face-to-face interactions with professors and fellow students. There is so much learning from observing how a professor does various things and from getting to know classmates and learning from what they have to share. While I absolutely love online courses due to the convenience …, I do not think any student’s sole method of taking courses should be online… I would have to say the mix of online and on-ground found in the hybrid class is perfect for me.” This study introduces the idea of hybrid classes. These classes are part online and part in-class. Classes like these allow students to be able to get the beneficial instructor and student interactions, while still being able to work on their own schedule.

1 comment for “Annotated Bibliography

  1. November 11, 2015 at 11:42 am

    Excellent sources, Maddie.

    Also, please consider two of the most cited sources in this space:

    and the recent work on online learning in community colleges:

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