Post 13

A positive university is a type of university that presupposes the development of every individual. It enables to provide sufficient education and necessary training where the latter helps to develop social and communicative skills. In order to get better understanding of the notion of a positive education, it is significant to discuss its function, goal, and influence on an individual’s development.

According to the article, positive universities are associated with the places where emotional and psychosocial health is developed and improved (Lindsay 432). In fact, this definition describes exactly what I understand under the term ‘positive university’. Nevertheless, the article has provided some additional information concerning the mentioned topic. Positive emotional well-being of the students is formed in different areas, namely university and campus. The latter is the place where students can get the best communicative and social skills, and it is possible to gain them with the positive attitude towards education. The lasting cooperation between students leads to gaining necessary social skills for the future profession. Moreover, the positive educational environment is a pledge to successful future. When the learning atmosphere is friendly and positive, students can easily learn the material and produce fruitful results. The most surprising fact for me was that in positive universities, much attention is paid to extracurricular activities as they help students develop interpersonal relationship. Finally, interpersonal relations may have positive impact on education as a whole.

Personally, I would like students to answer the following questions after reading my post: “What is the place of positive universities in your learning process?” and “What are your expectations of the positive university?” These questions totally illustrate the position of the student concerning the mentioned topic. Consequently, it will be easy to find out whether the students support the idea of positive universities in the modern society.

Post 12

In spite of the fact that we connect with a wide system of individuals regularly, the social brain science writing has basically centered on communications with dear loved ones. The present research tried whether subjective prosperity is connected to collaborations with these solid binds as well as to cooperation’s with powerless social ties (i.e., colleagues). In Study 1, understudies experienced more prominent bliss and more noteworthy sentiments of having a place on days when they associated with more cohorts than expected. Widening the degree in Studies 2A and 2B to incorporate every single day by day association (with both solid and powerless ties), we again found that frail binds are identified with social and enthusiastic prosperity. The present results highlight the force of feeble ties, proposing that even social cooperation’s with the more fringe individuals from our informal organizations add to our prosperity.

Strong ties are the associations that predicament you to your dear companions and partners. Those you see frequently or sensibly consistently. The ones you have an individual or working relationship with. Weak ties are the associations that are infrequent and not all around framed. Somebody you have met however hasn’t framed a firm association with. Your solid ties can vouch for you. Your feeble ties can take you puts you wouldn’t expect and convey on your fantasies.

What I have learnt is that, a great many people don’t venture outside their usual range of familiarity and go converse with another person. In any case,in doing that they pass up a great opportunity for the possibility to meet somebody that could have a huge effect in their lives, either straightforwardly or in a roundabout way. On the off chance that you can simply go and start the discussion it’s your opportunity to add to your associations of feeble ties. Furthermore, this might one be able to day bring about a robust startling advantage in your life.

Post 11

My first understanding of forgiveness was from the Bible, which states that forgiveness is an act of pardoning the offenders no matter the severity of the offense. However, as I grew older, my understanding of forgiveness expanded to a voluntary or intentional process in which the victim changes attitude regarding an offense he or she experienced.

After reading the topic, there are certain aspects that I am familiar with: using forgiveness interventions that are theoretically grounded helps patients sort out past offenses and assists them in achieving solice in the form of forgiveness. I was also familiar with the finding that as a result for alternative versus forgiveness treatment comparison, offense severity correlated positively with forgiveness. However, the aspect of treatment dosage as a significant forgiveness predictor was new to me (Wade et al. 12).

What surprised me in this article is that the findings indicate that forgiveness interventions are often used by psychotherapists since interpersonal difficulties are ubiquitous in most therapy. In addition, I was surprised that forgiveness intervention is very beneficial in the treatment of anxiety and depression, assists in remediating problems, enhances human functioning, and provides hope (Wade et al. 13).

It is evident from the study that forgiveness interventions are effective in promoting mental health and enhancing the lives of people. Therefore, answers to following questions help understand how forgiveness is used in therapy. What are the relationship of counselingprocesses to forgiveness outcomes? How are different treatment approaches incorporated in forgiveness interventions?

Post 10

Before reading the article on the topic Differences in Character Among U.S. College Students, I knew that every person is inherent in a particular type of character. I realized this topic, as a description of the psychological component of the U.S. College students, namely, their inner world and behavior in society.
After reading an article, my vision of the topic considerably expanded and compounded, because, according to Abraham Maslow, who was an American humanistic psychologist, science of psychology pay more attention to the negative side than the positive, whereupon, I realized significant value of positive features of humankind (354).
Reading this article, I found out not only the aspects that were known to be but also some new ones. For example, familiar to me is the fact, that the strength of character is generally the same for each age category, ethnic group, and relationship status. Moreover, I knew the assumption proposed by Peterson and Seligman, which argues that the character strengths to some extent are stable, but is susceptible to the development and nurturing (Peterson and Seligman).
An unknown aspect for me was result of the research, which is associated with leadership. According to it, leadership skills are considerably higher in the females than in males. That fact totally destroys the stereotype that males are better leaders than females..
Unexpected fact for me was that after interviews with students, a character strength as the “love of learning” is in the penultimate place in rank order of Character Strengths, ahead of only “prudence / caution”, and being close to the “spirituality / sense of purpose / faith / religiosity”, and “self-regulation” in the bottom of the table. In addition, I was surprised, that the leader in rank order of Character Strengths is “playfulness / humor” (Karris 73)


  • How many major criteria are included in the initial list for determination of the character traits?
  • Name five or six character strengths which were yielded by application of criteria?
  • What was focused Positive Psychology on and who initiated the movement of Positive Psychology?

Post 9

             Developmental Neuropsychology of Substance Use Disorders

            Before reading the article, my understanding of the topic was that the biological and cognitive changes that take place in young people during the transition into adulthood out them at risk of engaging in drug and substance abuses. According to my understanding, a majority of these changes takes place in the brain, and they make adolescents susceptible to the pharmacological effects of drug and substance abuse. Based on this background information, my understanding was that any adolescent is at risk of engaging in drug abuse regardless of their background. However, my perception changed after reading Conrodand & Kyriaki’s article. More specifically, the work enlightened me that there are childhood psychosocial and biological factors that can increase the risk of an adolescent engaging in substance abuse (Conrodand & Kyriaki 382). Secondly, the article opened my eyes to the fact that adolescence presents more of a generic risk factor that involves tampering with cognitive and reward systems in the brain.

One thing that surprised me after reading the article was learning that the risk of an adolescent to engage in substance abuse can be influenced by various psychosocial and biological factors during childhood. Secondly, it dawned on me that that substance use disorder is linked to particular personality and neurocognitive factors, implying that some individuals are more vulnerable to drug abuse than others. When a vulnerable individual exposes themselves to a certain level of alcohol intake, for instance, the underlying neural circuits in the brain could be stimulated supraphysiologically, such that the person develops increased urge for the drink (Conrodand Kyriaki 384). One question that bothered me and would like my classmates to answer when they comment on my post is what should be done to mitigate the effects of childhood psychosocial and biological factors that increase the risk of an adolescent engaging in substance abuse.


My understanding of the topic just before reading the article is the writer’s call for a multifaceted research. This is a research to look into the issues pertaining to the close relationships between members of the opposite sex. The suggestion is meant to stir in-depth analysis of female-male interactions to incorporate the factors found and combine them in a useful manner. The purpose is for information and passage of knowledge to the intended beneficiaries or target audiences such as students and colleagues.

After reading the article, I realized that the organizational alluded to has nothing to do with workplace or business entities. However, it is a description of an individual about his/her feelings, thoughts and behaviours. I am reminded of intrinsic and discreet tendencies and how they are shaped up as one grows. All these are said to depend on how one is nurtured, and the relationship between the past, present and future social contexts, which determine one’s personality.

I was familiar with anger in general. Couples may disagree on issues. It is also important that partners in a relationship derive emotional support from each other. In addition, it is also understandable that early caregivers influence how one will be able to relate in a romantic relationship later in life. However, the tractability of behaviour in relationships is a new aspect. In addition, the emotional measure of behaviour is complicated and quite discreet. It is also surprising that an individual’s behaviour can manifest either positively or negatively in their later life in a romantic relationship. I wish to have my classmates provide any mid-life solution to a person whose childhood caregivers did not do a good job.


Darren J. Good et al. tried to grasp the concept of mindfulness at work in their 2015 article; “contemplating mindfulness at work.” Similarly, this article is linked to the field of management and how better it can improve the general research about performance, relationships and the well-being of the worker. Through a step-by-step explanation, the writers identify the core issue is continuing to integrate it into real life experiences expressively.

The first section of the article defines mindfulness as the state of singular consciousness that has both awareness and is attention centred. Additionally, the next step taken was identifying the approaches that are used to assess mindfulness; questionnaires and engaging in mindfulness activities. Consequently, these two are summed as mindfulness operationalization, which then subsequently assist in assessing the impact that it has on human functioning. It is only through attention that mindfulness can successfully affect the workings of the human mind.

The article as well shows that there is research pinpointing to cognition as a link between mindfulness and attention-enriching qualities. Additionally, when combined with physiology, emotion, and behaviour, not only does that worker become focused but also, their performance improves. Moreover, the article, through segmentation, goes on to link this research on mindfulness and how exactly assists a worker in setting goals and buffering their performance.

The article is well written with notable expertise shown in the field of mindfulness as related to human functioning. Its prose structure is easy and cohesive which allows a lot more people to understand the topic being written about. Similarly, it serves as a light towards further research in the field of advanced management theory allowing it to be relevant many years to come.


Prior to reading the article, my understanding of the topic is that having positive emotions is beneficial to an individual because they not only balance out the negative ones but have powerful effects as well. I also understand that positive emotions enhance an individual’s attention, awareness, and memory. For these reasons, a person with positive emotions can take in more information, grasp how various ideas relate, and hold many ideas in mind at the same time.

After reading the article, my understanding of the role of positive emotions has increased fundamentally. For example, the article has made me understand that positive attitudes have a correlation with individual behavior. I also know that positive emotions, such as love, pride, satisfaction, interest or joy, may be distinct but broaden an individual’s momentary thought-action repertoires. Furthermore, the article has reinforced my understanding that positive emotions ultimately disengage lingering negative feelings. In this regard, an individual who has always held negative emotions could make critical progress if he or she replaces them with positive thoughts.

One of the surprising findings from the article is that the constructive effects of positive emotions, such as the ability to broaden thought-action repertoires, countering the negative emotions, fueling psychological resilience, and triggering upward spirals towards an individual’s emotional well-being, are not conclusive. The implication is that human beings have a lot to benefit by having a positive attitude towards life and more to lose by being negative all the time. When commenting on my post, I would like my classmates to respond to the following questions:

  1. How could individuals use positive emotions to foster a culture of continuous learning?

The article has reiterated the role of positive emotions. What do you think are the roles of negative emotions?



My understanding of the topic prior to reading the article “Health-Related Variables and Academic Performance Among First-Year College Student: Implication of Sleep and Other Behaviors” by Trockel et al. is that health has a major impact on the academic performance of college students. A person’s health is bound to affect their sleep patterns and behaviors, and this is evident on how they treat other people around them. Sleep and behavior patterns are factors that affect the academic performance of a student. However, after reading the article it is very clear that a student’s efficiency is influenced by much more than their physical health. The article highlights that a person’s nutrition, spiritual wellbeing, sleeping habits, social relationships, time management, and mental health have big impacts on their grades and success in learning process. I that it is important for a student to be in good health physically, emotionally and spiritually in order to perform well in school. It is also important to have a supportive social circle that wants the best for you, if you want to excel academically.

I was familiar with aspects of nutrition, mental health, exercises, time and stress management affecting a student’s academic performance. It is however surprising to learn, that an individual’s spiritual wealth has an impact on their performance in college. From my observation, student who are active in religious matters do perform well in their studies.

From the article, I would like my classmates to identify areas in their lives that negatively or positively affect their academic performance. I would also require them to analyze the negative factors and identify how they would improve on them for the benefit of their academic excellence. I would also require them to signify the factor that largely affects the academic performance of most students within our college.


From my understanding, neuroscience refers to studies relating to brain activity. This is because the term neurology is the study of the brain and its functions. Mental health refers to the state of an individual’s mind. Not all individuals can be considered to be of sound mental health. There are conditions that arise due to an unstable state of mind. Without proper diagnosis and treatment of such conditions, an individual might perform or engage in acts that are not normally acceptable or even commit suicide. Neuroscience  studies more than brain activity. It also involves the study and analysis of human behavior. It also studies and explores how the machine-brain interface can be utilized to benefit in body part transplants. It is evident that neuroscience has inspired technological developments after reading this article.

What was new to me that there are neurobiological effects that have been linked to depression. They can be either symptomatic or causative. Mood disorders like depression have been linked to the formation of neurons in the brain. The ideology of Erich Fromm that postulates, the emphasis on rather than being in a Western society is a symptom of a sick society that would succumb to mental disorders. Fromm’s hypothesis states that rampant materialism is bad for your mental health.

What was surprising is that less than a third of depression patients in the United Kingdom receive any treatment at all. The figure for schizophrenia, another mental condition, stands at two thirds. In Germany, three quarters of patients with severe depression do not get the assistance they require.

My questions to my classmate is the advertising industry causing an increasing amount of stress to individuals in their pursuit of fulfilling the material desires it displays?

Is mental illness predominantly a symptom of a sick society? How can therapy target the system we live in?

post 3


Positive Psychology

Before reading the article, ‘Positive Psychology, an Introduction’ by Martin E. P. Seligman and Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, my understanding of positive psychology was incomplete regarding interpretation and applicability. The broader understanding of psychology as a discipline that tries to analyze and understand the sources of social problems led to the assumption that it is immune to similar issues. The assumption was that psychologists could not be forced by the external pressure to deal with one or few topics of psychology.

Another assumption was that positive psychology was necessary and was only applicable to pathologies. For instance, invoking the positive human traits to help an individual overcome some sought of obstacle/s. The understanding of the topic was not ‘Pathocentric’ Persie, but it could be applied to solve pathological issues. After reading the article, the perception shifted to viewing positive psychology as a field that concentrates on preventive measures to protect issues occurring in human life rather trying to solve already existing problems. Reading the article also helped in realizing that psychology is not immune to external press The human traits and the collective wellbeing aspects of positive psychology were not new even before reading the article. These issues are considered to contribute highly to solving the future problems to human beings. After reading the article, the aspect of the current situation being better than the next one was found to be new and a little bit contradicting the entire idea. This point was considered to be surprising in the sense that it can make people lose hope which is one of the good human trait contributing highly to happiness. How it helps in positive psychology was not very clear.

One of the questions that my colleagues should address after reading this comment is whether positive psychology can complement pathological psychology. Colleagues should also identify how positive psychology can improve the existing pathological psychology if possible

post 2

At the article “Genetic influences on adolescent behavior.” it was shown to us that how genetic influences on child life.
Before this article, I though environment what wold affect adolescent behavior but now I know that genetic play a significant part in our life.

Do you agree that adolescent becomes more genetically influenced rather than environmentally controlled.


My understanding of the topic before reading this article was I did not know much about Mental Health. Except for the fact that A century ago life expectancy was around 47 yrs. And during Medieval times expectancy was less than that. I learned that from another class was talking about Health & Wellness.
While I was reading the article, I remember my grandmother who has experienced a serious mental illness. She had Alzheimer’s it was so sad seeing her suffering.
keyes was trying to give many ideas of how can the nation institute of mental health develop and Serve the American people. It was quite shocking to read that mental illness is among the three most costly conditions in the United States it is even after CVD.
Finaly I believed the hypothesis that anything less than complete mental health results in increased impairment and disability (Keyes, 2002, 2004, 2005a, 2005b)