I have organized this second curation by first listing the nuggets I chose and then listing the connections I drew amongst them based on my tags.
1. Egypt’s Spring: Causes of the Revolution by Dr. Ann M. Lesch
There was public outrage at the very public beating-to-death just before midnight on June 6, 2010, of 28-year-old Khaled Said, seized as he entered an internet café in Alexandria. Late that night 70 young men and women gathered across from the police station, demanding that the police be brought to justice. They received the usual response: beaten, dragged along the street, attacked by police dogs, and arrested. Protests continued throughout the summer: funeral prayers at Sidi Gaber mosque, attended by 600 mourners who spilled out into the street afterwards; a vigil outside the Ministry of Interior headquarters in Cairo; a silent protest along waterfronts and bridges throughout Egypt; and numerous violently suppressed protests in downtown areas not only involving well-known politicians and protest groups but also people who felt that Khaled Said could have been themselves, their son, or their grandson… On the fortieth day commemorating his death, people shouted outside the High Court: “Our voices will not be silenced… We’ve waited for 25 years, but our condition has not improved. Tomorrow the revolution will come.”
2. “Spring Awakening: How an Egyptian Revolution Began on Facebook” by Jose Antonio Vargas
That was the day Wael Ghonim, a 29-year-old Google marketing executive, was browsing Facebook in his home in Dubai and found a startling image: a photograph of a bloodied and disfigured face, its jaw broken, a young life taken away. That life, he soon learned, had belonged to Khaled Mohamed Said, a 28-year-old from Alexandria who had been beaten to death by the Egyptian police. At once angered and animated, the Egyptian-born Ghonim went online and created a Facebook page…. It took a few moments for Ghonim to settle on a name for the page, one that would fit the character of an increasingly personalized and politically galvanizing Internet. He finally decided on “Kullena Khaled Said” — “We Are All Khaled Said.”
Two minutes after he started his Facebook page, 300 people had joined it. Three months later, that number had grown to more than 250,000. What bubbled up online inevitably spilled onto the streets, starting with a series of “Silent Stands” that culminated in a massive and historic rally at Tahrir Square in downtown Cairo. “We Are All Khaled Said” helped ignite an uprising that led to the resignation of President Hosni Mubarak and the dissolution of the ruling National Democratic Party.
The internet is useful for information dissemination and news gathering, social media for connecting and co-ordinating groups and individuals, mobile phones for taking photographs of what is happening and making it available to a wide global audience and satellite television for instant global reporting of events.For dissident groups, all of these digital tools allow them to bring together remote and often disparate groups and give them channels to bypass the conventional media, which is usually state controlled and unwilling to broadcast any news of civil unrest and opposition to the government.
4. “New study quantifies use of social media in Arab Spring” by Catherine O’Donnell
After analyzing more than 3 million tweets, gigabytes of YouTube content and thousands of blog posts, a new study finds that social media played a central role in shaping political debates in the Arab Spring…
During the week before Egyptian president Hosni Mubaraks resignation, for example, the total rate of tweets from Egypt — and around the world — about political change in that country ballooned from 2,300 a day to 230,000 a day. Videos featuring protest and political commentary went viral – the top 23 videos received nearly 5.5 million views. The amount of content produced online by opposition groups, in Facebook and political blogs, increased dramatically.
5. “The Revolution Will Be Tweeted” by Rasha A. Abdulla
The Khaled Said [Facebook] page, which by then had about six hundred thousand followers, demonstrated its strong ability to organize. They listed all the major squares in every Egyptian governorate where they expected people to gather, and again gave specific instructions on what to wear, what to take with you, and who to contact in times of trouble. They then alerted the users that the listed venues for demonstration would change at midnight on January 24 to give police forces a lesser chance of mobilizing against them the next day. On the morning of January 25, there were close to half a million people who had clicked “I’m attending” the revolution. Today, the Khaled Said page has more than 1.7 million users, by far more than any other Egyptian Facebook page.
Twitter played an important though slightly different role. Crucial messages relayed in short bursts of one hundred and forty characters or less made protesters ‘cut to the chase.’ Most activists tweeted events live rather than posting them on Facebook. Twitter was mainly used to let people know what was happening on the ground, and alert them to any potential danger. It usually was ahead of Facebook in such efforts. Twitter also enabled activists to keep an eye on each other. Some managed to tweet ‘arrested’ or ‘taken by police’ before their mobile phones were confiscated. Those words were incredibly important in determining what happened to them and in trying to help them.
- Nuggets 1 and 2 correlate with each other as they both describe the heinous crimes committed by the Egyptian Police. Nugget 1 describes the event that sparked the Egyptian Revolution, the savage killing of Khaled Said, while also describing police brutality inflicted upon those who demanded justice for Said. Nugget 2 also explains the even that sparked the Revolution- the death of Khaled Said.
- Nugget 3 can also be connected under this tag as it explains how the Internet spreads messages of “civil unrest and opposition to the government.”
- Nuggets 2, 3, 4, and 5 each discuss social media and the Egyptian Revolution.
- Nuggets 2 and 5 deal with the role of Facebook in the Egyptian Revolution: Nugget 2 explains how Wael Ghonim created the Facebook page “We Are All Khaled Said” in light of learning of this young man’s story, and how within a few minutes the page had over 300 people join it and within a few months over 250,000 people join it; Nugget 5 goes into depth about how the Facebook page was used to organize protests, inform protesters of what to wear, what to bring, and who to contact in emergency situations.
- Nuggets 4 and 5 both describe the role of Twitter in the Egyptian Revolution: Nugget 4 states that tweets sent from Egypt exploded to over 230,000 tweets per day in week leading up to Hosni Mubarak’s resignation; Nugget 5 explains how Twitter was used to broadcast live events, alert protestors of trouble, and inform protestors when someone had been arrested or injured.
- Nugget 3 describes the usefulness of the digital tools such as the Internet and social media for those who wish to broadcast “any news of civil unrest and opposition to the government.” Social media sites, such as Twitter and Facebook, are used to connect people to each other thereby allowing them to exchange information and ideas. As shown in Nuggets 2, 4, and 5, social media played a large role in the Egyptian Revolution.
- Nuggets 1, 2, and 5 are connected under this tag. Nuggets 1 and 2 touch on the spark that lit the Egyptian Revolution (the killing of Khaled Said). They both also describe protesting: Nugget 1 describes a series of protests that occurred after Said’s murder ultimately resulting in a full-fledged revolution; Nugget 2 explains how protests grew into an uprising that caused Hosni Mubarak to resign.
- Nugget 5 describes the revolution from a social media stand-point, explaining how Facebook and Twitter were used to aid and support the Revolution.