Bell, Wright & Bourdieu

Main Points Cultural Reproduction and Social Reproduction (Bourdieu) Bourdieu posits that culture is transmitted from generation to generation through the educational system of the ruling class. “The inheritance of cultural wealth which has been accumulated and bequeathed by previous generations only really belongs to those endowed with the means of appropriating it for themselves (Bourdieu […]

Parsons & Merton

Main Points Categories of the Orientation and Organization of Action (Parsons) For Parsons, action revolves around living organisms and their behavior(s). This behavior has four aspects to it: it has ends or a goal to attain, is regulated by norms, and occurs within a situational context, all of which is somehow driven by an underlying […]

Gilman & DuBois

Main points Women and Economics (Gilman) Gilman begins her treatise by saying that humans are affected by their environment; climate, locality, etc. Nevertheless, she argues the social milieu is a unique force in the lives of humans. “What we do, as well as what is done to us, makes us what we are (Appelrouth 198).” […]

Durkheim

Main points The Rules of Sociological Method Durkheim argued that each individual, when in society, operates under an imposition by the collective that he deemed a social fact. “The public conscience exercises a check on every act which offends it by means of surveillance or penalties (Appelrouth 86).” Expounding on the social fact, he then […]

Weber

Main points The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism Regarding asceticism and the spirit of capitalism, Weber linked them by arguing that God’s will was made manifest through the labor of the individual. This was the way of pursuing a righteous life; one where security of material possessions lead not to a state of […]

Karl Marx

Main points The German Ideology Where Hegel contends that consciousness is the driving factor behind historical change, Marx argues that one’s material existence is the chief determinant of one’s consciousness and consequently the impetus of history (Appelrouth 33). On the issue of ownership, Marx describes the four historical stages in the development of the division […]

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