Skip to content

Case Study

Student background/Attitude Toward Reading

The student is eight years old and in the second grade. She has attended the same school for four years. Through a student interview, the examiner learned that she loves to read and her favorite books are about unicorns. Her favorite author is Dr. Seuss; she enjoys reading his book called, Green Eggs and Ham. In addition, the examiner learned that in her spare time, she enjoys swimming. The student’s PALs score from fall 2019 identifies her spelling stage as Letter-Name (LN). According to the document, she scored a 17 on her spelling word list, which is above the benchmark score of 15 for her grade level.

The Elementary Reading Attitude Survey (ERAs) determines a student’s attitude toward reading. The student’s raw scores for recreational reading is 34, academic reading is 31, and the total raw score is 65. Her percentile ranks are 74% in Recreational reading, 62% in Academic reading, and the Total score is 69%. These percentiles are compared among the student’s scores with a national sample of students within the same grade level. The recreational reading score determines her attitude toward recreational reading. The academic reading score determines her attitude toward academic reading. Total Raw score is the recreational score plus the academic score together. The student’s score indicates that she prefers to read for recreational purposes than academic purposes. On a recreational question “How do you feel when you read a book on a rainy Saturday?” She chose the Happiest Garfield (4 points). When the examiner asked an academic question, such as question 11: “How do you feel when a teacher asks you questions about what you read?” She chose the very upset Garfield (1 point).

When the examiner asked questions about beginning new books, the student would quickly respond with the upset garfield. The student looked at the survey intently. The student sat in her seat upright. The examiner noticed that the students listened to instructions carefully.

Phonological Awareness

Score on the Yopp-Singer Test of Phoneme Segmentation Level of Phonological Awareness (Strong, Emerging, or Needs Intervention)
20 Strong

The Yopp-Singer Test of Phoneme segmentation assesses a student’s level of phonemic awareness. The student correctly segmented 20 of the 22 words indicating strong phonemic awareness. There were no physical patterns of incorrect segmentation. When the student responded to the word “me” she added an additional /y/ sound. The student added an additional /i/ sound to the word “by”.

The student looked at the examiner carefully while listening for the words.

Writing Skills

Idea & Content 3: Developing
  • Main idea may be cloudy because supporting detail is too general or even off-topic
Organization 2: Emerging
  • Lack of structure; disorganized and hard to follow
  • Missing or weak intro and conclusion
Voice 3: Developing
  • Voice may be inappropriate or non-existent
  • Writing may seem mechanical
Word Choice 4: Proficient
  • Language is functional and appropriate
  • Descriptions may be overdone at times
Sentence Fluency 3: Developing
  • Some awkward constructions
  • Many similar patterns and beginnings
Conventions 3: Developing
  • Limited control of conventions; frequent errors do not interfere with understanding

The examiner used a picture prompt of a dog wearing clothing and holding a ukulele to obtain a writing sample. The student ideas & content are too general as you read the story. She begins by stating that the dog is cute, but continues to explain how the dog looks. For example, “ He looks like a little prsin.” For this reason, the student received a 3(Developing) for not having a clear main idea and stating too general ideas in her writing sample. The organization lacks an introduction and conclusion by beginning her paper with “ I think it is a cit bog” and ending it with “It looks like hoolwen in the bay”. The examiner chose a 3 for her voice because the writing consists of statements about the image. For Word choice, the examiner gave the student a 4 because she used a variety of descriptive vocabulary such as “happy, person, animal, and cute.” On Sentence Fluency, the student received a 3 (developing) because she began her sentences with I and He more than once. On conventions, the student was scored a 3 (developing) due to grammar such as “bog (dog), anumol (animal), and hoolween (Halloween).” The student examined the picture carefully before writing. She explained her thoughts out loud as she wrote her sentences.

Word Knowledge 

Number of Feature 34/56
Number of Words spelled correctly 8/26
Level Late Letter Name
Known Words Using but Confusing Absent 
  • Initial/Final Consonants
  • Short vowel (a,i,o,u)
  • Digraphs
  • Blends (sl-, st-, fr-, cr-)
  • Common long vowel (o-e)
  • Other vowels (or)
  • Inflected endings: (-ed, -ding)
  • Short e vowel
  • Blends (dr-/ bl-)
  • Common long vowel
  • Other vowels
  • Inflected endings
  • Inflected endings (-ed)
  • Most Common long vowels
  • Other vowels (ew, aw, ou, oi, ow, ir)
  • Inflected endings (-ed, -es, -ies. -pping)

The Words Their Way, Primary Spelling Inventory (PSI) is used to assess the orthographic knowledge of elementary students. The student’s PSI indicates that the student is at Late Letter Name stage. For example, she scored a 7/7 for initial and final consonants. The student scored 6/7 on short vowels. She can spell most short vowels such as a, i, o, and u, but is using and confusing short e vowels. For instance, she spells the words “pet” and “sled” with an “a”. She understands all of her digraphs and most of her blends. She scored a 4/7 on her blends and understands the sl-, st-, fr-, and cr- words given. She used and confused bl- in the word “blade” and dr- in the word dream. For the word blade, she spelled it as dlad. In the word dream she spelled her word with a gr- blend instead of a dr- blend. She identifies 1/7 common long vowels. The feature she has corrected is o-e in the word “hope”. A few common long vowel features that were absent are: /ai/ for “wait”, /i-e/ for “shine”,/ea/for “dream”,/a-e/ for “blade”,/oa/ for “coach”, and /igh/ for “fright”. For Other vowels, she has 1/7 correct, the one she has correct is the /or/ feature in the word “thorn”. Lastly, on the Inflected Endings feature she scored 2/7 correctly. The two features she received correctly were /-es/ and /-ding/. The features that were missed are /-ed/, /-es/, /-ies/, and /-pping/. For instance, she has the featured ending correctly, by writing the word “wish” like “whish”.

The examiner noticed that the student stared at words when she was not sure. The student wrote her words and then erased her words during the assessment. The student responded that she knows that some of her words are spelled incorrectly.

Reading Skills

QRI Word Lists:



Total Correct


# and Percentage

Total Correct Identified

# and Percentage

Total Number Correct # and Percentage Functional Level
Primer 17/20= 85% 3/20= 15% 19/20= 95% IND
First 12/20= 60% 1/20= 5% 13/20= 65% FR

The student scored 95% on the Primer Word List. She automatically identified each word correctly or identified the word on the second attempt. For instance, she didn’t automatically identify the word “read” on the first showing. The second showing, she knew the word and responded correctly. She self-corrected herself on number 19, she responded the word “great” was pronounced “grant” and self-corrected. The word she read incorrectly was “want”. On her first attempt, she said the word was “what”. For her second attempt, she replied, “went”. For the first word list, the student identified automatically the first 5 words: bear, father, find, sound, friend. She wasn’t able to identify 7 words such as song, thought, enough, brain, heard, afraid, and movie. For instance, she responded that “song” was “sun-nay” and enough was “enoji”. On one out of the 7 words, she responded with “I don’t know” for the word “thought”. The first level list was considered frustration level.

The student looked at the word list intently as the examiner displayed the word.

Reading Passage Scores:

Passage Name
  • “Fox and Mouse”  
  • “The Bear and the Rabbit” 
  • Seasons     
Readability Level Level Primer Level One Level Two
Passage Type Narrative


Narrative Expository
Concept % 88% FAM 



100% FAM 55% FAM
Quality of Prediction 3 3 1
Retelling 5 Or 5/15 9 Or 9/14 2 Or 2/18
% Total Accuracy/Level 94% INS 97% INS 96% INS
% Comprehension/Level 67% INS 83% INS 63% FR
Explicit Correct/Total 2/6 4/6 2/8
Implicit Correct/Total 2/6 1/6 3/8
Rate WPM/CWPM 177/113 241/175 475/238
Total Passage Level INS INS FR

Reading Level: First

On the Primer level passage for “Fox and Mouse”, the student scored a 2 or 3 for her responses to the concept questions. She scored a 2 on the concept question, “What are seeds?” she responded, “something you grow with. Like a plant.” A score of 3 would be relating to the answer, “ a seed is a part of a plant”. For instance, she scored a 3, for the second concept question, “ What do gardens need to grow”? She responded: “soil, nutrients, water, and sunlight” which follows under the category of a 3. The last concept question had asked, “ What do mice eat?” In order to receive a 3, the examinee should respond with either cheese or peanut butter. She responded with “cheese.” The student had 7 miscues which categorized the passage as Instructional. For example, she read the word ground as “garden”. The second attempt at the word garden, she read it as “grumming”. She self-corrected on 3 words such as “wonder”, “didn’t”, and “watered”. She inserted “saw” for the word “is” into the sentence.  As an example, this sentence was, “ It is only one seed.” For the retelling portion, she received 2/4 correct on the setting/background, 0/2 on the goal, 2/6 for events, and 1/3 on the resolution list. For example, she recalled that the “Mouse helped the Fox and that they watered the seeds.” In the events section, she remembered that “he dug up one seed, and ate it.” During the comprehension questions, she answered 2 correct explicit questions and 2 explicit questions correct. The two explicit questions asked are “What did the Fox want to do? And What did Mouse do with the first seed that he dug up?” She responded to the first question with “plant seeds” and the second question, “ He ate it.” The two implicit questions that we’re correct are, “Why didn’t the garden grow? And Why did Mouse help Fox plant the garden again?” The first implicit question response was “ because Mouse ate all the seeds in the garden”. Her response was similar, “ Because Mouse kept eating those seeds.” She missed 2/4 explicit questions.  Her responses did not align with the responses listed below the question. An example is that the answer is, “to see if it was growing” for the question: “Why did Fox dig up the first seed?” Her response was, “Because he wanted to eat them.” The overall passage level was considered Instructional.

The student repeated her sentences when she was self-correcting the words that she incorrectly read in the passage. When the student didn’t understand the word, she would pause and stare at the word before attempting to pronounce the text.

On the Level One passage on “The Bear and the Rabbit”, the student scored a score of 9/9 for her responses to the concept questions. On the first question, she scored a 3 for answering correctly on the question, “What makes a friend?”. The second question she scored a 3 since she answered: “what is a bear?” For the last question, she received a 3, because she answered correctly for, “What does ‘being afraid of animals’ mean to you?” She responded, “like being scared of them.” The student had 9 miscues which categorized the passage as Instructional. For instance, At the beginning of the oral reading, she inserted a few words: I,  the, saw, and why. She self-corrected 3 times with the words: all, was, and were.

She read 4 words incorrectly such as singing, began, bird, and joined. For the words, “they” she responded with “Why” and “bird” with “bear”. The student inserted “ the river” instead of “a river” in the sentence, “…the bear was sitting by a river.” In the Retelling section, the student scored an 8/15. She was able to retell the setting/background of the passage. She answered ⅔ of the goals correctly, “his father said, “by being you” and “but all the animals are afraid of me.” When the examiner asked her about the events in the story, the student mentioned that, “the bear was sitting by the river singing softly, and the rabbit thought the bear was nice.” She had an overall 9/15 correct in this section. During the comprehension questions, she received 4/6 (explicit) and 1/6 (Implicit). One implicit question she received right asked, “Why did the father think that the bear could find a friend just by being himself?” She responded with a few responses, “ because he might look scary, you don’t have to do that because you’re going to be yourself, and the bear was nice”. The implicit question she received incorrectly was “Why did the bear and the rabbit become friends?” She said, “ the rabbit thought he was nice” while the correct response would be, “ because of their love of music.” The overall passage level is Instructional.

During the assessment, the student had read the passage fluently and quickly. When the student realized she said the wrong word, she would pause and self-correct the word. The student would pause and stare at the text when she didn’t know.

On Passage Two:Seasons”, the student scored a score of 5/9 for her responses to the concept questions. On the first question, she scored a 3 for answering correctly on the question, “What do flowers need to grow?”. The second question she scored a 2 since she listed animals instead of explaining “what does forest animals in the winter mean to you?” For the last question, she received a 0, because she didn’t correlate her answer to the changing seasons. During the oral reading, the student had 9 miscues which categorized the passage as Instructional. She has the following words incorrect: four, seasons, year, last, warm, make, us, deerfly, spring, & there. As an example, she said “force” for the word “four”, “senses” for the word “seasons”, “last” for “lasts”, “makes” for “make”, “U.S” for “us”, “birdfly” for “deerfly”, and “September” for “Spring”. She has self-corrected words such as “winter”, “June”, “United”, “likes”, “plants”, and “The”. For instance, she read “ There are four seasons in a year” as “ There are force senses in a yard.” During retelling the passage, she recalled 2 answers correctly: leaves begin to die in September and December is the shortest year.” During the comprehension questions, the student missed 3 questions. For question 3, she replied “ summer” for “What day has more sunlight than any other?” She scored a 5/8  which categorizes her under the Fustrational level.

The student paused on words she didn’t recognize during the assessment. After, the student would attempt to pronounce the word by breaking the word apart. She covered part of the word as she pronounced the word.

Listening Vocabulary Knowledge

Student Chronological Age 8 years 10 Months 21 Days
Raw Score 137
Standard Score 87
Percentile Rank 19
NCE 32
Stanine 3

The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) is a norm-referenced test that measures a child’s receptive (hearing) vocabulary for the spoken word in Standard English. A norm-referenced test is a formal assessment used to compare a student’s level of achievement to that of other students of the same age or grade. The student’s results demonstrate that her chronological age is 8 years, 10 months, and 21 days. The chronological age is determined by the date of the test subtracted by the Examinee date of birth. This helps with determining the appropriate picture plate to administer (start age set) and converts the raw score to standardized scores. To calculate the raw score, the examiner will take the number of the last item known as the Ceiling item and subtract the total errors (number of 0 scores). The student scored 137. The student received a standard score of 87. A standard score is the distance of the student’s raw score from the average for students of the same age. The average score is 100. The percentile rank indicates the percentage of individuals who have scored equal to or lower than a specific score. The student scored 19% at or above in their age-group. NCE stands for Normal Curve Equivalents which is determined by the distance between a student’s raw score and the average score in the normative group. On the graphical profile, the student scores fall in the expected range.

The student was explaining her answers using the process of elimination.

Summary of Assessments:

The first assessment that was conducted was the Elementary Reading Attitude Survey( ERAS), this determines a student’s attitude towards reading. The recreational reading score determines her attitude toward recreational reading. For the student’s recreational reading score she received 34 points. The academic reading score determines her attitude toward academic reading. Her academic reading raw score, she scored 31 points. Her total raw score is 65 points. Secondly, the Yopp-Singer Phoneme segmentation uses phoneme segmentation to determine phonemic awareness. The student received 20 correct out of 22 questions, which is phonemically aware (strong). Thirdly, on the writing sample, she was given an image of a dog playing the ukulele. The student’s prompt was to create a story based on her observations from the image.  The rubric scores are based on 6 components: Idea and content, Organization, Voice, Word Choice, Sentence Fluency, and Conventions. The student received a 3 (developing) for Organization, 2 (emerging) for Organization, 3 (developing) for Voice, 4 for Word choice, 3 (developing) for Sentence Fluency, and 3 (developing) for Conventions. The examiner concludes that the student’s best work was not shown in the results of the writing sample. The student’s writing sample was well organized but did not correlate to the criteria. The student wrote her story neatly but lacked an introduction and conclusion. The fourth exam was the Primary Spelling Inventory Feature Guide (PSI) demonstrates a student’s knowledge of key spelling features on different stages of spelling development. The number of feature points was 42/56 and 13/26 words spelled correctly. The score falls under the within word pattern stage because the student received 2 of more features in the list wrong in the Common long vowels column: ai, ea, oa, igh. The fifth exam was the Qualitative Reading Inventory (QRI-6) which is an informal reading assessment that determines a student’s ability to identify words and comprehend text successfully. For the QRI word list, the student received 17/20=85% for the primer word list which is considered Instructional level. For the First word list, the student received 12/20= 60 % total correct at the frustration level. Lastly, the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) is a norm-referenced test that measures a child’s receptive (hearing) vocabulary for the spoken word in Standard English. The student received a raw score of 137. The student’s percentile rank is scored 19% at or above the student’s in their age-group. The student’s scores fall in the expected range on the graphical profile.

Recommended Instructional Plan

Phonological Awareness


  • Deleting sounds: have students create a new word by deleting a sound. For example, you can say “c-c-c-c- can” then make sure you say the word after (can). Then ask students to listen for what sounds you can take away to create a new word. Create other words just like the example and have students try this activity. Some examples are : 


  • began-an
  • Sold- old
  • Send-end
  • Tape- ape


  • Adding sounds: First, say the word “an” then mention to the student that I will be making a new word. Say v-v-van. Discuss with the student what sounds you added to make the word “van.” 


For example:

  • Say the word lap. Add /c/ to lap.

Ask the students “What is the new word?”

  • Say the word and. Add /s/ to sand.

Ask the students “What is the new word?”

  • Say the word top. Add /s/ to stop.

Ask the students “What is the new word?”


  • Elkonin Boxes: 


  • Instruct this activity to your students to provide enough assistance as needed.
  • Slowly say the word while pushing tokens into the boxes sound by sound.
  • Model the process a second time to make sure students understand
  • Then invite the students to say the word. Try stretching the sounds of the word, so they can hear the separate sounds while you move the tokens.
  • Invite students to push the tokens into the box while you say the word slowly.
  • After, provide examples and begin to transfer the responsibility to the students. Have students identify the picture and then pronounce the word very carefully.

Sources: Johns, J. L., & Lenski, S. D. (2014). Improving reading: strategies, resources, and Common Core connections. Dubuque, IA: Kendall Hunt Publishing Company.



  • Initial blends Bingo 


This activity will test the student’s knowledge of initial blends. In the game, the student will have to identify what pictures they draw from the pile. Once the student identifies the picture, they will determine which initial blend begins with that word. For example, if a student drew the word “blender”, he/she will find the “bl” on the board and cover it up using a marker. If there isn’t a “bl” space on their board, they will not cover anything.

Example Initial blend words: flag, drink, sled, stars, frisbee, crocodile, tractor, grab, scab

  • Work in pairs
  • Give you and your student a bingo game board and game marker
  • Take turns drawing a card from the stack and calling out the picture names
  • Place their marker on the corresponding square
  • The game continues until someone gets Bingo( three of four in a row)


  • Beginning Blend Clip Cards


This activity is a card game that allows students to identify the image and determine the initial blends of that word by placing a clip on the 3 options at the bottom of the card. Students will demonstrate and practice identifying initial blends.

Example words/pictures: present, fruit, floss, spider, dragon, brave

  • Allow your student to view each card and have them identify what the picture resembles.
  • Ask the student, what letter or letters do you hear at the beginning of the word
  • Have the student place the clip on the correct answer


  • Sound Board: 


This activity was chosen because it allows students to identify and emphasize each sound that is words. If students understand what sound is in the words, it will help them identify what letters are in the word as well as the sounds such as letter-recognition and letter-sound correspondence.

    • Guide students through the task by using an example
    • Have your students place the letters in the correct location. Consonants are placed at the top row, vowels are placed at the middle row, and the last row is where students are building their words.
    • Firstly, ask your students to say the letters and his or her corresponding sounds
    • Secondly, demonstrate and work with your student to build a word
    • Transfer the responsibility to your student and allow them to start building words.


  • Example words: to, go, no, by, cry, glad, plot



Bear, D. R., Invernizzi, M., Templeton, S., Johnston, F. R., & Bear, D. R. (2016). Words their way: word study for phonics, vocabulary, and spelling instruction. Boston: Pearson.

G, A., Stacey, Stacey, Geiger, A., Geiger, A., Bronner, J. K., … Jenn. (2018, August 19). 6 free games for teaching beginning blends. Retrieved from



  • 1. Four-Square


This activity can help students expand their understanding of a new vocabulary word by reviewing the definitions and non-example words.

Example word: Joined

  1. Select a word that your student has struggled with. For instance, The examiner chose the word “Joined” because the student didn’t know what this word was in a story she had read.

b. Draw a square with four quadrants on the board. At the top of the chart, she will label it Vocabulary words and place the words in the box.

  1. Have her predict a definition for the word.
  • Scaffold the student’s learning by using her ideas and adding more information to correct any misconceptions.
  1. 2. Word Wheel

This activity can be used to expand a student’s vocabulary. It provides multiple ways for students to use similar words without being repetitive.

  • Draw or print out a word wheel.

–     Write a word that is overused, in the center circle.

    • An example is “Cute”.
    • The examiner chose this word because the student used this word to describe an image. Provide and introduce new adjectives during this activity.

–      List synonyms

–       You can show your student that he/she can use a thesaurus. If you cannot think of similar words

 Ex: adorable, beautiful, pretty, charming

  1. 3. To Root To Toot, To Parachute activity:

This activity reviews what a verb is and provides vocabulary instruction that the student can use during writing. The students will be given examples through this reading below.

  • Ask and Discuss: Can you tell me, “What is a verb?”


  • A verb tells the reader what the character in a story is doing.


  • Explain to students that before I read, I would like you to find pairs of verbs from the story and write it down on your paper.
  • Read Page 5-10 from To Root To Toot To Parachute: What is a Verb? By Brian P. Cleary
  • Have students write down examples of verbs she found in the story
  • Share examples and explain that they can use these new examples in their writing
  • Students can use the new vocabulary in their stories to express how they are feeling



  • Echo Reading


Kenn Nesbitt Website:

      1. Read My Dog Lives On the Sofa by Kenn Nesbitt
      2. First, you will explain to the student that you will read a line, then they will repeat the same line.
      3. After reading the poem, you can ask comprehension questions about the poem.
        1. How did my voice sound when I was reading?
        2. How did it sound when I read a sentence with a question mark? Why?
        3. How do you feel about the poem?
        4. Were there any words that you learned today?


  • Recording student 


Read the story: “Don’t Let the Pigeon Drive the Bus” by Mo Willem 

    1. Have students read a book of their choice
    2. Use any device to record the student while reading
    3. Have students evaluate their reading using the fluency rubric below and explain how students can improve
                Fluency rubric                                                   Sounds good!      Keep Practicing!

  1. Accuracy– I read all the words correctly.
  1. Rate– I read at a good speed, like when I talk
  1. Expression– I made my reading sound interesting,

like when I tell a story.

  1. Phrasing & Punctuation– ”, ! ?. I read the punctuation


  • Listen to Audio Recording


This activity can help students learn new vocabulary and understand how a reader should sound while reading. It teaches students that readers should use expression and pause during punctuations like commas or periods.  It can be used to let students practice their reading fluency by copying the authors audio.


  • Go to:


    1. Read: Brand New Shoes by Kenn Nesbitt
    2. Choose a poem according to the student’s grade level
    3. Play audio and have students follow along to the poem
    4. After, ask the students what she noticed when listening to the audio
    5. Have the student re-read the poem out loud with similar to what she observed in the audio recording


Johns, J. L., & Lenski, S. D. (2014). Improving reading: strategies, resources, and Common Core connections. Dubuque, IA: Kendall Hunt Publishing Company.



  • Getting to Know My Character: 


    1. Explain to students that the author provides some important facts about the character of your story.

Example text: Alexander and the Terrible, Horrible, No Good, Very Bad Day.

    1. Fill in the facts box with facts that your student(s) have found. Ask corresponding questions about the characters (Alexander).
    2. Tell the students that the author also helps the reader learn more about the characters. Locate portions of the passage that provide descriptions.
    3. Record information that describes the character’s actions. Model what the information states. For instance, “ The story says that [character] “ character’s actions.”
    4. Discuss the character’s conversations, words, thoughts, and what they’re thinking says about them.


  • Main Idea T: 


    1. Choose a text that has a clear main idea with details.

Example text: A Bad Case of Stripes by David Shannon

    1. Write the word main idea and terms on the board and ask students for their definitions.
    2. Refer back to the story that was just read. Ask her what she thinks the main idea of the story is and why?
    3. Ask students to list the main idea of the text and list supporting details directly from the text. Have her refer back to the text to find her supporting details and list the page numbers.
  1. Character Traits Map
    1. Have students select a character from a story they have read


  • Example text: Ada Twist, Scientist by Andrea Beaty
  1. Tell students that they can infer character traits from events in the story
  2. Have students list evidence they have found from the story corresponding to the specific character trait.
  3. Repeat the directions for the second box.
  4. Have students share their findings.


Johns, J. L., & Lenski, S. D. (2014). Improving reading: strategies, resources, and Common Core connections. Dubuque, IA: Kendall Hunt Publishing Company.


  • Hand map

This activity can be used to write a personal narrative and allows her to use new vocabulary in her stories.

  • Trace your hand
  • For each finger, list how you’re feeling.
  • Use a thesaurus to list synonyms of their words they have listed
  • In her journal write why she is feeling these emotions.
  • Have her write a narrative of how she is feeling using the new terms.


  • Order the Details 

This activity helps her practice organizing details in a story. She will practice good transitions, clear beginnings, and endings of a story.

Read: Spiders

  • Choose a small paragraph that is well organized with a clear transition
  • Copy and cut the copy into a strip, so it resembles a puzzle
  • Have her piece the story together by reading out loud the pieces she finds.
  • After, have your student read the story out loud to determine if her story makes sense
  • Review the chosen answers


  • Snapshot

Providing snapshots allow the readers to paint a picture of what the author is demonstrating in the stories. This activity will allow the student to demonstrate her voice in her writings.

  • Demonstrate what a snapshot is by using the example above: “A Bad Day”
  • Ask her what she thinks is a snapshot from the example that was given. Point out features she has noticed from the writing piece.
  • Then have your student choose a topic they would like to write about
  • Have your student create a snapshot to include in her writing.


2nd Grade Reading Passages with Questions. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Spandel, V. (2013). Creating writers: 6 traits, process, workshop, and literature. Boston: Pearson.



  • Scholastic Story Generator


This website can be beneficial for the student because it helps her decide on a topic to write on. It provides the writers with an option to choose between different genres and chooses topics based on a student’s grade level. This also helps prevent the loss of time when deciding on a topic.


  • Interactive story map


The examiner chose this activity because it helps you map out events in the story you have read. In the interactive story map, it provides questions about the stories and allows the readers to answer. After completing each question,it places your responses on a concept map. Also, if you need to change your answer, you are able to change your answers. You can print out the map once you’re finished.

  • Click on the specific graphic organizer:
    • Character Map, Conflict Map, Resolution Map
    • Follow the questions above the map and respond
    • Example text for conflict map: The Day The Crayons Quit by Drew Daywalt


  • Cube Starter:


The examiner chose this cube starter because it can be used in multiple ways. The student can use the cubes before or after reading.  These interactive cubes can be used to predict where the story may take place, the conflicts, or who the characters might be. Also, use this to help out comprehension after a story. This cube starter allows students to reflect back on the stories they have read or find evidence in the books to answer the questions.

  • Suggestion: Read “The Sneetches” by Dr. Seuss
  • For this activity, create a story cube using the website below:
  • Answer the questions given
  • Save the cube and print it out
  • Tape cube template together


“5 Great Activities from Read Write Think.” Free Technology for Teachers, 1 Jan. 1970,

Formative Assessment

Running Record Data and Analysis

Date Book Level or Decodable book Familiar Text or Cold Read Total Words Total Errors SCR (self-correction ratio) % Accuracy Text Level IND, INS, FR
11/13/19 Beginning blends Familiar Text 99 6 1:4 94% INS
11/20/19 Beginning blends Familiar Text 280 10 1:11 96% INS
12/4/19 Beginning blends Familiar Text 114 5 1:2 96% INS

Running Record Analysis:

The first decodable text The Pond, she has 6 total errors and 2 self-corrections. On the errors, she would say the words: “flip” for the word “plip”, “flap” for the word “plap”, “flop” for the word “plop”, “slit” for the word “slip”, “the” for the word “a”, and “rift” for “raft”. She self-corrected for the words: “ran” and “said”. For the word “said”, she first said “sid” before she self-corrected. The examiners teaching points are: to address and practice techniques for the student to read at her own pace. Also, reviewing over I-blend words such as the word “rift” versus “raft”. Students can practice closed I- blends and A-blends using the elkonin boxes. Providing a visual for the student can help demonstrate how the words are different. The student stated that the reading was too easy while reading this decodable text. The student told the examiner, “I like a challenge.”

The second decodable text is The Trick Clock, she has 10 total errors and 7 self-corrections. The words she had incorrect were: drum, went, I, don’t, a clock, plan, went, and it. She missed the word “drum” twice and said “dump”. She responded to the correct word “went”, but changed her answer to “want”. The other miscues, she said “the” for “a”, “it” for “I”, “didn’t” for “don’t”, “to” for “a”, “talk” for “clock”, “pal” for “plan”, “left” for “went”, and “they” for “it”. Her self-corrections were for the following words: truck, A, was, truck, It’s, do, at, and said. The teaching points for this running record are to review letter vowels with the student such as /a/,/e/,/o/ words. The examiner notices that the student is confusing words with words that have similar features. Also, the results demonstrate that the student may be confusing certain words due to reading too fast. For instance, the student self-corrected the word “It’s”, but not “It” from another sentence. The student read using intonation during the conversations and when the sentence ended in an exclamation point. The student tried to complete the decodable text, but ran out of time in the session. She continued to read quickly to attempt to finish the last portion of the passage.

The last session used the same text in the prior assessment: The Trick Clock. During the re-assessment, the student read less than the prior session. The student has a total of 5 total errors and 5 self-corrections. The words she received incorrect were: drum, boxs, sat, and truck. For the word “drum”, she used two different words such as “duck” and “dump”.  She confused the two words “truck” and “trick” by using “trick” for “truck”. The words she self-corrected are tent, trick, a, tick, tock, and clock. She self-corrected the word “trick” twice in the passage by using two different words in the first attempt. The student noticed that the passage didn’t say “trick clock” and self-corrected. For the word “clock”, in her first attempt, she said, “block” and self-corrected after. From the results, the examiner views that the student needs more practice with her beginning blends. The words that were missed can be used during phonics instruction. Activities that allow her to visualize, build words, and verbally pronounce words would be helpful in building her knowledge in blend words. The examiner noticed that the student self-corrected the words she missed such as the word “tick-tock, tick-tock”. The student was confusing words with blends that begins with the same features. During the reading, the student stares closely at the passage.



  • Phonological awareness: 


On the first attempt of the Yopp singer Test of Phoneme segmentation, the student missed only 2 words: me and by.  For the word “me”, she added an /y/ sound at the end of the word. During the second word: by, she added an /y/ sound at the end. Since the student scored 20/22 words correctly, she is categorized as phonemically strong. The examiner reassessed her missed words and the results are similar to the first attempt. The student sounded the words out by adding additional sounds. During tutoring, the student has reviewed and practiced short vowels.  Before providing a re-assessment, the student was able to divide the sounds on the elkonin boxes.


  • Phonics:


PSI 1 Number of Feature Points


Number of Words Spelled Correctly


Late LN
PSI 2 Number of Feature Points


Number of Words Spelled Correctly


Early Within Word Pattern

In the first attempt at the PSI, the student has 8/26 words spelled correctly and 34/56 feature points. On the short vowels, she missed short-e words such as pet and sled. She missed 2 blends: dream and blade. For the common long vowel, she scored 1/7 and had the o-e long vowel correct. On “other vowels”, she only “received the “or” feature correct. The “inflected endings”, she scored a 2/7 and had the -ed, and -ding feature correct in the words shouted and riding. In the second attempt, the student scored a 7/7 for her short vowels and spelled her short-e words correctly. She scored a 7/7 on her beginning blend words: dream and blade. The student scored a 6/7 on her “digraphs” feature and missed the /th/ digraph feature. She spelled “thorn” as “torne” and “chewed” as “chood”. For the “other vowels, she has 3/7 features correct: or, ou, and oi. On the “inflected endings”, her score is constant to the first attempt. According to the results, the examiner noticed that the student understands her short-e words and blend words. The student isn’t displaying b and d reversals in her second PSI assessment. The examiner notices that the student has practiced the “bed analogy” by placing two thumbs up to remind her of the direction of the b and d letters.


  • Vocabulary: 


During phonics instruction, the student is reviewing short vowel words and beginning blends. The student would be given a few words to practice writing on a dry erase board. After, the examiner and the student would check over the words. If the student wrote the word incorrectly, the examiner would repeat the words and allow the student to correct the word. Once the student has the correct spelling, the examiner will also ask how did you know the word is spelled this way? After completing all the words in the lesson, she will write the new words she just learned in her writing book.  For the second activity, the student will review what verbs are and provide examples. After, the student will read “To Root To Toot To Parachute: What is a Verb? By Brian P. Cleary and discuss the new verb words she just read. The student explained how she can use this word in a sentence and wrote the new words in her writing book. The student knew some words she found in the book and some new words she didn’t. When the student came across a silly word, she repeated the word and began to chuckle. She understands what beginning blends are and uses the correct blends. The examiner notices that the student is starting to write her b’s and d’s in the correct direction.


  • Fluency:


The student would read poems from the website called “Poetry 4 Kids”. During this instruction, the student would either read the poem aloud, listen and follow along with the audio recording, record her reading or echo-reading. After the instruction, the student will answer comprehension questions about the poem she read. During the instruction of recording the student’s reading, the student will demonstrate her reading abilities. Then, the examiner will playback the audio and allow the student to critique her own reading using the fluency rubric. The student will choose from the choices of “Sounds good” or “Needs Practice”. If the student chooses “Needs practice” this allows the examiner to practice these reading skills with the student in the next session. The examiner discussed the words the students said wrong while re-reading the poem Christmas Cat, the student has read most words correctly. As she read this poem the second time, she read “doesn’t”, “festive”, “litter”, and “sandy” correctly. The student stated that she enjoys reading new poems.


  • Comprehension: 


Before allowing the student to read, the examiner asked the student, “What will the story be about based on the title and the cover?” After the student has read her poems and new text, the examiner will ask the student if her prediction was correct or incorrect. The examiner then asked, “From the reading, What do you think the main idea of the story is and why?” The student can recall details about the story that was read. The student can easily explain why her prediction was right or wrong. The student refers back to the story to display her proof.


  • Writing: 


The examiner gives the student a few words to practice writing on her dry erase board or paper. The student would write the words down the way she hears the sounds. If the word is incorrect, the examiner would assist her in correcting the incorrect words. The examiner notices that writing misspelled words has helped the student with her phonics instruction. The second mini-lesson was shared writing. The examiner and the student take turns writing ideas and creating a story. In this activity, the examiner reviews the writing process. The student has learned to capitalize the first letter in a sentence and end with punctuation. She understands when a question mark should be used.


  • Technology: During fluency instruction, the student follows along with the audio recording of the poems. The recording has helped her practice using expressions and intonation while reading. When the examiner asked the student if she wanted to try something new. The student shook her head in agreement and proceeded to read as the examiner recorded her. After playing back the recording, the student notices that she needs to practice more. Since this, the student is practicing her tone while reading. When the examiner incorporated technology into the lessons, the student would smile. 



Reading 2.8

The student will echo read a poem with a tutor. The student will read with

fluency and accuracy.

The student will read and demonstrate comprehension of fictional texts.

a) Make and confirm predictions.

b) Relate previous experiences to the main idea.

c) Ask and answer questions about what is read.

d) Locate information to answer questions.

e) Describe characters, setting, and important events in fiction and


f) Identify the problem and solution.

g) Identify the main idea.

h) Summarize stories and events with beginning, middle, and end

in the correct sequence.

i) Draw conclusions based on the text.

j) Read and reread familiar stories, poems, and passages with

fluency, accuracy,

Activity: Echo reading of “I Tried to Take a Selfieby Kenn Nesbitt


I Tried to Take a Selfie

I cracked my father’s camera.

My mother’s iPad too.

This shouldn’t be so difficult.

I don’t know what to do.

At last I got a selfie;

perhaps the worst one yet.

I posted it online today.

It broke the Internet.

I Tried to Take a Selfie


  • Introduce poem to student
  • Explain to students what echo reading is
  • For today’s poem, I’ll read first and I would like you to repeat the same line. This is called Choral reading. As you’re reading make sure you’re using your finger to follow along with the words.
  •  Read the poem aloud and model fluent reading for the student
  •  Ask students to use a marker/finger to follow along with the text as she reads.
  • Allow your students to reread the poem

In this activity,  the examiner explained to the student what echo reading is. The examiner read the first line and the student reads the same line and follows along. During echo reading, the student followed the examiner’s intonation and tone. She was able to practice using her tone and intonation while reading.

She read quickly after the examiner finished reading. The student easily followed along with her finger and didn’t have any problems with rereading each sentence. During punctuation, the student made sure to pause before beginning a new sentence.


Objective: The student will increase his/her listening comprehension strategies (Read Aloud). The student will demonstrate their knowledge of what a verb is and provide examples from her prior knowledge and from the read-aloud.

Reading 2.8: The student will read and demonstrate comprehension of fiction and nonfiction.

a) Make predictions about content.

b) Read to confirm predictions.

c) Relate previous experiences to the topic.

d) Ask and answer questions about what is read.

e) Locate information to answer questions.

f) Describe characters, setting, and important events in fiction and poetry.

g) Identify the problem, solution, and main idea.

Writing 2.12 The student will write stories, letters, and simple explanations.2.12

a)  Generate ideas before writing.

b)  Organize writing to include a beginning, middle, and end for narrative and expository writing.

c)  Expand writing to include descriptive detail.

d)  Revise writing for clarity.

Activity: Introduction of Read-Aloud: To Root To Toot To Parachute: What is a Verb? by Brian P. Cleary.

The student will be able to provide examples of rhyming verbs in pairs

Materials: To Root To Toot To Parachute: What is a Verb? By Brian P. Cleary


  1. Ask and Discuss: Can you tell me, “What is a verb?”
  • A verb tells the reader what the character in a story is doing.
  1. Explain to students that before I read, I would like you to find pairs of verbs from the story and write it down on your paper.
  2. Read Page 5-7 from “To Root To Toot To Parachute: What is a Verb?” by By Brian P. Cleary
  3. Have students write down examples of verbs she found in the story
  4. Share examples and explain that they can use these new examples in their writing

During the activity, the examiner introduced a new text that covered verbs. The examiner asked the student, “What is a verb?”. The student didn’t recall what this term meant. The examiner answered, “ A verb is an action. For example, in the sentence, ‘ The student was swimming in the pool’ What is the verb in this sentence?” She responded, “Swimming!” After, the examiner asked the student if she could give a few examples of a verb. The student was able to recall verbs she knew. After, the student has read pages 5-7 and pointed out the verbs she knew and the verbs she didn’t know. Lastly, the student wrote her new verbs in his writing notebook. The examiner explained that she can use her new verbs in her writing. The student seemed to enjoy this activity because she was laughing during the story. As she watched the illustrations from each page, she was pointing out the actions that the characters were doing. She did very well with providing examples of verbs and knew what most verbs meant. The examiner gave the student the writing notebook to take home so that the student can refer back to the new words she has learned. The student was excited to write her new words in her notebook.


Reading 2.8

Objective: The student will follow along with the audio recording of a poem and describe

a) Make and confirm predictions.

b) Relate previous experiences to the main idea.

c) Ask and answer questions about what is read.

d) Locate information to answer questions.

e) Describe characters, setting, and important events in fiction and


f) Identify the problem and solution.

g) Identify the main idea.

h) Summarize stories and events with beginning, middle, and end

in the correct


i) Draw conclusions based on the text.

j) Read and reread familiar stories, poems, and passages with

fluency, accuracy,

Activity:  Listening to the audio recording of My Dog Does My Homework by Kenn Nesbitt

Materials: iPad/computer, audio recording from the website, marker/reading pointers (optional), copy of poem

My Dog Does My Homework

My dog does my homework

at home every night.

He answers each question

and gets them all right.

There’s only one problem

with homework by Rover.

I can’t turn in work

that’s been slobbered all over.

— Kenn Nesbitt


    1. Introduce poem to student
    2. Have students follow along with audio recording
  • For today’s poem, we’re going to listen to the audio recording. I would like you to follow along with your finger as it plays.
  1.  Ask students to use a marker/finger to follow along with the text as she reads.
    1. Q: What do you hear in the author’s voice?
    2. Why do you think the author reads like this?
  2. Have students practice reading like the author’s recording
    1. Intonation,expression,fluency

The examiner played the poem’s audio recording from the website Poetry4Kids. The student had to follow along with the author’s reading. The examiner asked the student to listen carefully to the author’s voice. After the recording was finished, the examiner asked the student what she observed from the author’s voice. The student learned that when you’re reading, intonation is important. Her response to the author’s voice was that “it went up and down”. This activity helped demonstrate what a good reader should sound like. Since this activity, the student has been practicing her intonation as she reads.

Phonological Awareness

Objective: The student will be able to use delete sounds to build their phonological awareness skills by separating words into individual sounds or phonemes.

Oral Language 2.4:  The student will orally identify, produce, and manipulate various units of speech sounds within words.

a)  Count phonemes (sounds) within one-syllable words.

    • b)  Blend sounds to make one-syllable words.
    • c)  Segment one-syllable words into individual speech sounds (phonemes).
    • d)  Add or delete phonemes (sounds) to make words.
    • e)  Blend and segment multisyllabic words at the syllable level.

Activity: Completing word using background knowledge

Materials: Dry erase board, Dry erase marker, word list (crayon, crib, braid, bread)


  • Introduce students with initial blend words.
  • Completing Words Activity: Say sentences in which the beginning sounds of some of the words have been deleted. Have students complete the words and tell what sounds are missing and had to be added.
  • Ex.  I read a big __ook.


  • I used a pink _rayon to color my picture. (crayon)
  • The baby slept in his _rib. (crib)
  • My sister tied my hair intl a _raid. (braid)
  • I put peanut butter on my _read. (bread)

The examiner explained to the student that she will be giving her a sentence and the student will need to use her prior knowledge to complete the word. The examiner gave the student the example, “I read a big __ook”. The student was confused at the moment but then gave the correct answer. The examiner created sentences using words from the Words Their Way initial blends word sort. When the student began her third sentence, she was able to complete the words without any struggle. While the examiner was reading the sentences, the student would concentrate and listen for the endings of the terms, to solve the words. After the lesson was finished, the student stated that she enjoyed this activity.

Be First to Comment

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Privacy Statement