Synthesis Matrix

How did the development and innovations of technology by NASA since 1958 have play a crucial role in the advancement of social media?

The development and innovations of technology by NASA since 1958 have played a crucial role in the advancement of social media because:

Names of Authors NASA improved the computer and signal clarity by adding speed to share multimedia such as images and videos through networks across the world wide web. The development of satellites enabled a broader range of network capacity to connect people worldwide. NASA has created thousands of computer programs over the decades equipped to develop media over the world wide web so that initially astronauts can share multimedia from space, but today those same programs are used to share multimedia. The technology and social media usage my NASA spurred competition among other companies in order to get the public more engaged through social media by competitions, interactions, and give-aways. 
Crawford, S.

 Not only did they develop multiple applications for the computer, but also helped develop it into a user friendly technological device. “Companies took speed and developed quicker web servers. High resolution was developed so that sharing multimedia could be clearer.”(Crawford) Starting with the Apollo missions is when social media exploded as images from space were shared drastically among people worldwide.  Satellites directly opened the world to mass networking. People watch TV shows that are broadcasted across the ocean. This opened up media to see what goes on in other parts of the world. “Millions of people connect through all kinds of social media websites to see news, talk to family, blog, and whatever else it may be.”(Crawford)  During the Apollo missions, NASA relied on webcam and live camera footage to see what astronauts were doing. “These footages were broadcasted live on websites. Eventually NASA developed blogging websites and used many programs to construct early websites for twitterlike websites for themselves.”(Crawford) These programs were later used as a basis for companies such as twitter and tumblr.  At the early times, NASA was the only company that really took advantage of the social media. The only other option at the time was listening to the news over the radio. “Once companies came out specializing in social media departments to engage users for products and ideas.”(Crawford)
Hendricks, D.

Telephone lines and radio signals enabled people to communicate across great distances instantaneously, something that mankind had never experienced before. “Improving signal clarity came directly from improving the clarity of communication from head quarters, to astronauts in space.”(Hendricks) With such an advancement in signals, multimedia sharing became much more proficient.   World wide connection and networking today is an utmost necessity. Today, there is a tremendous variety of social networking sites, and many of them can be linked to allow cross-posting. “This creates an environment where users can reach the maximum number of people without sacrificing the intimacy of person-to-person communication. “(Hendricks)  Websites are created using programs such as HTML, JavaScript, SQL, PHP, and different other programs. NASA depended on these programs for its website and the ability to interact with people. “The C Program Packages was also a huge innovation. With all these programs, and using the networking and social media concept, companies ideally took the design and improved it upon their own nature.”(Hendricks) This is how Twitter and Tumblr, to name a few, allow inter-connectivity only only through their website, but through other websites too.
Dunbar, B.

The television was still a relatively new concept during the early times of the cold war. With black and white imaging originally, NASA and scientists spearheaded the color TV which gave the world a different kind of clarity. “Peter Carl Goldmark got a lot of help from the research that was provided by NASA, and this became a major stepping stone in the world of not only the television, but clarity for public information and vision.”(Dunbar)   “A group of more than 20 satellites make up the Global Positioning System, or GPS. If you have a GPS receiver, these satellites can help figure out your exact location. The number of satellites for uses have grown.”(Dunbar) There are separate satellites for the telephone, television, internet, digital cinema, and many more. Satellite Internet access is Internet access provided through communications satellites. “Modern satellite Internet service is typically provided to users through geostationary satellites that can offer high data speeds, with newer satellites achieving downstream data speeds up to 15 Mbps.”(Dunbar)  Mobile application development is the process by which application software is developed for low-power handheld devices, such as personal digital assistantsenterprise digital assistants or mobile phones. “These applications can be pre-installed on phones during manufacturing, downloaded by customers from various mobile software distribution platforms, or delivered as web applications using server-side or client-side processing (e.g. JavaScript) to provide an “application-like” experience within a Web browser.”(Dunbar) 

“NASA is one of the few brands doing something right with Google+. It has 1.3m followers and has been viewed over 362m times.”(Dunbar) One of the key ways in which NASA has achieved this following is through its steady programme of very entertaining Google Hangouts, all of which are available on its YouTube channel.

Launius, R.

 Sputnik as an opportunity to demonstrate the power of the “positive liberal state” offered the world by the United States. In essence, this position celebrates the use of state power for public good. “Space exploration, they argued, was reasonable and forward-looking and led to “good” results for all concerned. Without perhaps seeking to do so, Sputnik offered an important perspective on a debate that has raged over the proper place of state power since the beginning of the United States.”(Launius) Basically to put a massive computer in space was highly unthinkable. With Sputnik becoming the first computer in space, this changed technology completely.   Without Sputnik, as well as the Soviet Union’s ensuing achievement of putting the first man in space, Yuri Gagarin, in April 1961, experts have questioned whether American astronauts would have walked away on the moon as soon as they did, or ever. In a sense, the victory of the Apollo 11 moon walk in July 1969 can be traced all the way back to Sputnik. “Without Sputnik, the race for the power of technological superpower would’ve never happened, media would’ve grown slower, and we might not even have smart phones or laptops to this date.”(Launius)    By today’s standards, the IT Nasa used in the Apollo manned lunar programme is pretty basic. “But while they were no more powerful than a pocket calculator, these ingenious computer systems were able to guide astronauts across 356,000 km of space from the Earth to the Moon and return them safely.”(Launius) The lunar programme led to the development of safety-critical systems and the practice of software engineering to program those systems. Much of this knowledge gleaned from the Apollo programme forms the basis of modern computing. These kind of computing were put in use into the public, giving them desktops, and to the direct development of the laptop. “During the Cold War era when space flights and launches were a regular, NASA set up a program where people would have to take pictures with captions and mail them in.”(Launius) When NASA found them interesting or loved them, the winners would be able to go to the launches and meet with the director. This still happens today, but this was an early development of the NASA Social program.
Embrick, J.

 Sharing images, videos, and all kinds of multimedia are a must to keep people interested and updated. John Embrick said that, “social media can not be where it’s at without the computer.” He said that statement bluntly and based on my research it is utmost true.  With social media exploding today, John Embrick is a pioneer at NASA. While NASA has no budget for social media, he took advantage of all social media websites and created multiple accounts where whatever NASA is doing is displayed. “The development of the satellites not only played a large role in social media today, but rather it is the reason why social media is in existence at the level it’s at.”(Embrick) To this date, social media is only expanding, and more satellites are going up for a quicker level of connection globally.  Without the development of any kind of programs that NASA had to use for any missions and all computers, the progression of programming and development of technology would’ve been super slow. “Due to the cold war, NASA saw the expansion of programming as not only a technological innovation, but a method of communication.”(Embrick)  “Increasingly, more and more people are getting their news from online sources, and we strive to share our story of exploration and discovery with the public through these digital channels, including social media,” said David Weaver, associate administrator for Communications at NASA Headquarters in Washington. “As NASA embarks on missions to go farther in space than ever before, we will look for new ways to engage the public and share the experience.” (Embrick)
Mulready, R.

“CompuServe was the first major commercial Internet service provider for the public in the United States. Using a technology known then as dial-up, it dominated the field through the 1980s and remained a major player until the mid-1990s.”(Mulready) This was the start of the computer development and eventually led to massive networking starting in communities.  NASA singlehandedly takes advantage of the satellites that they put up. For the satellites that monitor internet, a gargantuan amount of signals are sent to them. In turn, they quickly shoot back and whatever we searched on our phones or computer shows up. The speed and networking today has excelled beyond to what technologists could’ve imagined two decades ago.  The way NASA operates its social media is like the a way a marketing company should do it. After all, NASA is a government agency, but they have millions of followers across all social media accounts. NASA gives its products voices. “They have taken this approach with its Mars Curiosity Rover, giving it a voice through dedicated FacebookTwitter and Foursquare accounts. They use Google+ as a method to directly contact people and groups to talk about daily news, or about random topics regarding NASA.”(Mulready) These kinds of interactions prove to go above and beyond all companies, which causes competition and a social media innovation. 
Oxford, T.

“While sitting just outside the boundaries of the 1950s in that it delivered its very first computation in 1949, it was in the 1950s that modifications to this computer made history. The Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator (EDSAC) was one of the first British computers and the LEO 1 (Lyons Electronic Office 1), built by J. Lyons and Co, was the first computer used for business applications devised on the EDSAC model.”(Oxford) The first stored program computer took a massive turn when the space race was at its beginning. NASA was established and this computer had to be advanced, and so it did by NASA computer scientists. From there the computer took off, and made history.

 The microchip is a tiny wafer of semiconducting material used to make an integrated circuit. A microchip is a semiconductor integrated circuit. The function depends on what it is designed to do. It could be a micro processor, memory chip, or digital tuner. “It could be used in your wristwatch, microwave oven, cell phone, garage door opener, the space shuttle, or almost anything. When it was first created, it was used for small purposes. Today, they’re implanted in animals, computers, calculators, laptops, and even more.”(Oxford) This was vital for the satellites because not only did it make it a machine operable in space, but operable from the ground to space and back. this connection enabled a lowcost but quick method of communication. 

“The development of the digital modem was initially driven by the demands of SAGE (Semi-Automatic Ground Environment) – the air defence system in the United States. Used to connect terminals across various radar sites, airbases and command-and-control centres, these modems were the first to be mass produced and to use the Bell 101 dataset standard.”(Oxford) They ran on dedicated telephone lines, sending data over the PSTN (public switched telephone network) and were very similar to the Bell 101, 110 baud modems. Today everyone in our home has modems for simple internet connections. This simple modem connects us with the whole world.

Myself

 Today we don’t realize how important of a role technology has played in our daily lives. Without the development of the television by NASA, especially because how much we rely on it for the news, movies and all. Without the development of the TV, there would’ve been a slower development of the computer which is one tool for social media.  It’s amazing how much satellites affect us. We rely on them to see into outer space, for weather reports, but little do most people know that the reason why we can see images on our phone from internet source and browse through stores for applications is because of satellites. They are reason when we can see all kinds of images, and interact with friends, family, and even online date.  As an information systems major, programming is one of the most important parts of the field. With the development of C packages by NASA, they played one of the biggest innovators of program development. Today these same packages can be found in our computers, tablets, and phones.  My father works at NASA as a Systems Engineer. Everyday he always tells me to be active on social media with NASA if I want to be considered to be chosen for one of NASA’s Socials. The amazing thing is that I believe that I am really social, but never have I ever won. The amount of people who use technology today is ridiculous. On twitter, I see the NBA,  Homeland Security, airlines, taxi companies, and all kinds of companies advertising themselves with rewards and competitions. A bunch of initiatives are given out so users can interact.

 

  • Crawford, S. (2011, March 3). How has NASA improved TV technology?. HowStuffWorks. Retrieved July 12, 2014, from http://science.howstuffworks.com/innovation/nasa-inventions/nasa-improve-tv-technology1.htm
  • Hendricks, D. (2013, May 8). The Complete History of Social Media: Then And Now. Small Business Trends. Retrieved July 12, 2014, from http://smallbiztrends.com/2013/05/the-complete-history-of-social-media-infographic.html
  • Dunbar, B. (2008, July 21). Space Program Benefits: NASA’s Positive Impact on Society.NASA. Retrieved July 14, 2014, from http://www.nasa.gov/50th/50th_magazine/benefits.html
  • Launius, R. (2009, November 17). An unintended consequence of the IGY: Eisenhower, Sputnik, the Founding of NASA. . Retrieved July 6, 2014, from 
  • Embrick, J. (2014, May 15). NASA Ranked High in J.D. Power’s Inaugural Social Media Study of Government. NASA. Retrieved July 14, 2014, from http://www.nasa.gov/press/2014/may/nasa-ranked-high-in-jd-power-s-inaugural-social-media-study-of-government/#.U8QeJvldWSo
  • Mulready, R. (2013, September 15). What NASA Can Teach You About Social Media Marketing. . Retrieved July 14, 2014, from http://rickmulready.com/nasa-social-media-marketing/
  • Oxford, T. (2009, August 5). 5 Technologies to thank the 1950s For . . Retrieved July 1, 2014, from http://www.techradar.com/news/world-of-tech/5-technologies-to-thank-the-1950s-for-623013

When I was first doing the synthesis matrix, I felt like I had all my research and I could finish this assignment within an hour. It took me a few hours because this matrix really taught me to dig into the information I had and make sure that I pull out every detail possible to obtain every bit of information. For the most part, all my research and matrices are complete. But if you look at my matrix you’ll see a couple of blank boxes for the “because clause” about media. This is because My research is present, but both the articles that I chose did not cover the aspect of social media competitions. I definitely have articles that give beyond substantive material about social media competitions and NASA making other companies enhance their marketing skills. This matrix assignment told me to bolster all my “because clauses”.

MAIN CLAIMS AND BECAUSE CLAUSES

Finding answers to a research question is an important part of any presentation, but the answers have to be articulated by main claims and because clauses.

The development and innovations of technology by NASA since 1958 have played a crucial role in the advancement of social media because:

  1. NASA improved the computer and signal clarity by adding speed and massive networking to share multimedia such as images and videos through networks across the world wide web.
  2. The technology NASA developed for improving its own missions has resulted in commercial applications around the world. 
  3. During the Cold War from the period NASA was established (1958-1991), social media saw it’s greatest innovative period with the indirect development of companies that became user friendly and opened networks across the world.
  4. NASA took advantage of all social media aspects and won an award for the most interaction with the public through social  media presented by J.D Power, competing against major companies and government agencies.

1. John Embrick (2014), an associate administrator for Communications at NASA Headquarters in Washington, acknowledges that, “increasingly, more and more people are getting their news from online sources, and we strive to share our story of exploration and discovery with the public through these digital channels, including social media.”

2. As J.R. Wilson (2008), a heavy researcher for technological development part of the Human Systems Integration Division,  reports that, NASA’s “Software of the Year” award went to Internet-based Global Differential GPS (IGDG), a C-language package that provides an end-to-end system capability for GPS-based real-time positioning and orbit determination. Developed at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the software is being used to operate and control real-time GPS data streaming from NASA’s Global GPS Network. The Federal Aviation Administration has adopted the software’s use into the Wide Area Augmentation System program that provides pilots in U.S. airspace with real-time, meter-level accurate knowledge of their positions.”

3.  John Yembrick, a blogger and a business strategist, uses his business mindset to encourage entrprenuers by recognizing that, “NASA uses social media to tell a story; the story of why space exploration is important to the fabric of people’s lives and NASA’s place in it.”

Research Nugget #4

Link 1:

  • Crawford, S. (2011, March 3). How has NASA improved TV technology?. HowStuffWorks. Retrieved July 12, 2014, from http://science.howstuffworks.com/innovation/nasa-inventions/nasa-improve-tv-technology1.htm
  • The technology NASA developed for improving its own missions has resulted in commercial applications around the world. NASA calls these “spinoffs.” Not only did they develop multiple applications for the computer, but also helped develop it into a user friendly technological device. For example, we take the computer mouse for granted now, using it countless times a day to do work or homework, to pay bills or buy things, or just to poke around looking for cool Web sites. But the device started out as “one small and relatively simple component” of a broader goal, according to Bob Taylor, who provided NASA funding for research that led to the device in the early 1960s. Computers were still thought of as machines, with a sphere like device to guide yourself on the machine. 
  • Nugget: “You can purchase a TV satellite dish to capture TV signals directly from a satellite service provider rather than a land-based TV tower or cable connection. NASA developments for improving the picture and sound received from satellites are now part of commercial satellite dishes.” 

NASA has increased its development with improving satellite reception quality with all kinds of devices. What is broadcasted on our TV comes from a receiver where signals come from a TV tower. Signals from the TV towers come from Satellites, with the origin of the signals coming from the companies. The improvement of these signals and receivers are due to NASA, as what they developed is not only for the television, but computers, and smart phones as well. The stronger the signal, the clearer and faster the quality is, the easier it is for us to access social media.

  • Nugget: “Another NASA TV innovation resulted from the demands of a new, unexpected audience following the 1969 moon landing: TV viewers intrigued by outer space [source: Abramson]. NASA TV broadcasts immediately followed, carrying footage of subsequent Apollo missions. NASA television is publicly accessible and free to watch, and today it’s an all-digital broadcast featuring four separate channels: Public, Media, Education and HD. Thanks to NASA TV, viewers have shared in NASA’s triumphs and tragedies, from the first images captured from the surface of Mars to the loss of the Space Shuttle Challenger to the present. In 2009, NASA TV received the Philo T. Farnsworth Primetime Emmy Award in recognition of “engineering excellence’ and to commemorate “the 40th anniversary of the technological innovations” that led to the first live TV broadcast from the moon [source: NASA].”

Social media is a large platform. They can be websites and applications that enable users to create and share content or to participate in social networking. The first images from the space launches where displayed everywhere from TVs to internet. NASA displayed them everywhere, and internet users took the information and ran with it. Images were printed, shared to emails, and basically was a start of social media for NASA.

Link 2:

  • Hendricks, D. (2013, May 8). The Complete History of Social Media: Then And Now. Small Business Trends. Retrieved July 12, 2014, from http://smallbiztrends.com/2013/05/the-complete-history-of-social-media-infographic.html
  • Interacting with friends and family across long distances has been a concern of humans for centuries. As social animals, people have always relied on communication to strengthen their relationships. When face-to-face discussions are impossible or inconvenient, humans have dreamed up plenty of creative solutions. It is important to understand the evolution of technology because with out it, communication would be a massive issue. 
  • Nugget: ”

    Two important discoveries happened in the last decade of the 1800s: The telephone in 1890 and the radio in 1891.

    Both technologies are still in use today, although the modern versions are much more sophisticated than their predecessors. Telephone lines and radio signals enabled people to communicate across great distances instantaneously, something that mankind had never experienced before.”

Now by looking at this nugget, one can wonder its importance. Why are the radio and telephone so important? The reason being that those two technological inventions were the birth of social media. The telephone started to eradicate snail mail, and the radio allowed programs to be played. People would share ideas and knowledge over the phone and radio and it was a huge stepping stone for the progression of more technological innovations for social media.

  • Nugget:

    “Technology began to change very rapidly in the 20th Century. After the first super computers were created in the 1940s, scientists and engineers began to develop ways to create networks between those computers, and this would later lead to the birth of the Internet.

    The earliest forms of the Internet, such as CompuServe, were developed in the 1960s. Primitive forms of email were also developed during this time. By the 70s, networking technology had improved, and 1979′s UseNet allowed users to communicate through a virtual newsletter.

    By the 1980s, home computers were becoming more common and social media was becoming more sophisticated. Internet relay chats, or IRCs, were first used in 1988 and continued to be popular well into the 1990′s.

    The first recognizable social media site, Six Degrees, was created in 1997. It enabled users to upload a profile and make friends with other users. In 1999, the first blogging sites became popular, creating a social media sensation that’s still popular today.”

Some of the first computers ran with only 10 megabytes of speed and were worth $5665. Since then, we clearly came a long way. The biggest development was the development of networks. These networks connected people together, and eventually people were connected internationally. But until then, people started companies that were designed for online chats. SixDegrees.com was a social network service website that lasted from 1997 to 2001 and was based on the Web of Contacts model of social networking. It was named after the six degrees of separation concept and allowed users to list friends, family members and acquaintances both on the site and externally; external contacts were invited to join the site. Users could send messages and post bulletin board items to people in their first, second, and third degrees, and see their connection to any other user on the site. It was one of the first manifestations of social networking websites in the format now seen today. 

Link 3:

  • Curtis, D. A. (2013, March 7). The Brief History of Social Media. The Brief History of Social Media. Retrieved July 10, 2014, from http://www2.uncp.edu/home/acurtis/NewMedia/SocialMedia/SocialMediaHistory.html
  • Social media are Internet sites where people interact freely, sharing and discussing information about each other and their lives, using a multimedia mix of personal words, pictures, videos and audio. At these Web sites, individuals and groups create and exchange content and engage in person-to-person conversations. They appear in many forms including blogs and microblogs, forums and message boards, social networks, wikis, virtual worlds, social bookmarking, tagging and news, writing communities, digital storytelling and scrapbooking, and data, content, image and video sharing, podcast portals, and collective intelligence. 
  • Nugget: ”
    The Prodigy online service was introduced. Later, it grew to become the second-largest online service provider in 1990, with 465,000 subscribers compared with CompuServe’s 600,000. In 1994, Prodigy pioneered sales of dial-up connections to the World Wide Web and hosting services for Web publishers. Subsequently, it was resold repeatedly and now is part of AT&T.
    1985

    The America Online (AOL) service opened.

AOL was the first online service of its kind. AOL Inc. (previously known as America Online, written as AOLis an American multinational mass media corporation based in New York City which develops, grows, and invests in brands and web sites. The company’s business spans digital distribution of content, products, and services, which it offers to consumers, publishers, and advertisers. AOL was also a fantastic way to open networking to a whole new level. This enabled users across the country to interact and share multimedia. 

  • Nugget:
    1992

    Tripod opened as a community online for college students and young adults.

    1993

    CERN donated the WWW technology to the world.

    Students at NCSA (National Center for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign) displayed the first graphical browser, Mosaic, and Web pages as we know them today were born.

    More than 200 Web servers were online.

    THE DAWNING
    1994

    Beverly Hills Internet (BHI) started Geocities, which allowed users to create their own websites modeled after types of urban areas. GeoCities would cross the one million member mark by 1997. There were 38 million user Web pages on GeoCities before it was shut down for United States users in 2009. Yahoo, which opened as a major Internet search engine and index in 1994, owns GeoCities today and offers it only as a web hosting service for Japan.

    More than 1,500 Web servers were online in 1994 and people were referring to the Internet as theInformation Superhighway.

    EarthLink started up as an online service provider.

    1995

    Newsweek headlines an article: The Internet? Bah! Hype alert: Why cyberspace isn’t, and will never be, nirvana.   read it here »

    1997

    The Web had one million sites.

    Blogging begins.

    SixDegrees.com lets users create profiles and list friends.

    AOL Instant Messenger lets users chat.

    Blackboard is founded as an online course management system for educators and learners.

    1998

    Google opens as a major Internet search engine and index.

    1999

    Friends Reunited, remembered as the first online social network to achieve prominence, was founded in Great Britain to relocate past school pals.

    2000

    In the world of business and commerce, the dot.com bubble burst and the future online seemed bleak as the millennium turned.

    Seventy million computers were connected to the Internet.

    2001

    Wikipedia, the online encyclopedia and world’s largest wiki, was started.

    Apple started selling iPods.

These few years inbetween 1992-2001 seemed to be one of the fastest growing technological times that highly influenced social media. The creation of Tripod gave college kids and graduates the ability to network with each other, and meet new individuals. In 1993, the creation of webpages gave a massive boost for many wesbites. Today there are millions of websites. When 1997 hit, the amount of pages were not only incredible, but blogging had started. People could share ideas, pictures, and all kinds of multimedia content. It’s crazy to see how by 2000 there were 70 million computers connected to the internet. Today there are twice as more due to the boost of technology. This means that computers became less expensive, laptops became more popular, smartphones are user friendly and enable you to access anything you want, and also the development of tablets.

Synthesis: For my research, these three links are definitely some of the more important ones. The development of technology affected not only social media, but how NASA uses these innovations to obtain users and keep the public updated constantly. The development of the satellite by NASA directly affected technology, and social media improved. Engineers were able to develop websites and improve the internet. Dot.com companies exploded, and users were able to obtain access to the internet and connect with people not only within their country but across the world. Its pretty awesome how NASA is interconnected into all of this because, after all, they are innovators.

Research Nugget #3

Link 1:

  • Niemeier, S., & Zocchi, A. (2013). Game Changing Technologies. Reshaping retail: why technology is transforming the industry and how to win in the new consumer driven world (). Somerset: John Wiley and Sons.
  • In order for NASA to develop how it interacted with social media through the change of technology since its creation, that required some form of technological inventions and innovations. Game changing technologies led to the change of the world. Communication changed, the internet blew up and web services grew exponentially, sensing and scanning and the use of voice recognition became vital, commerce, and geolocation expanded like no other. But two of the most vital that changed the game were media capturing and media consumption. Photography, video recording, audio recording, music, and videos all lead to what we call productivity. Productivity is defined as creating documents, editing and sharing, storage and synchronization, sharing files across all kinds of devices, and managing contacts and keeping everything organized.
  • Nugget:  “As mobile devices have improved, usage and penetration have soared (Exhibit 3.8). In the United States, 40 percent of all mobile phones sold by the third quarter of 2011 were smartphones— more than double their share in 2009. And according to the technology research firm Gartner, smartphones and tablets combined make up 70 percent of all devices sold in 2012. 6 Growth in mobile usage outpaces PC-based use of the Internet, and mobile apps have already surpassed PC Web browsing in terms of time spent per user (81 minutes versus 74 in a 2011 survey).” 

The high productivity of phones show that people rely on their phones more than PCs. With smart phone technology, social media is right at our finger tips. A single application can put us into a network of hundreds, thousands, and even millions of people. These applications consist of news, twitter, instagram, tumblr, whatsapp, and so many more. Today, smartphones only come with a data plan, so browsing the internet has never been easier.

  • Nugget: “Capacity to store information in cheap and stable ways has advanced at incredible rates, in multiple storage media and on connected devices, and in the vast data centers that host corporate and consumer IT services (Exhibit 3.5). Storage media are becoming denser, so the physical size of storage devices is shrinking as capacity grows, and their cost is falling. The software to manage that storage and make it widely accessible and secure likewise has improved rapidly. Researchers at IDC note that 2.7 zettabytes of information will be stored in 2012, replicated across many, many devices— an increase of 48 percent over 2011. 5 A zettabyte is 1 × 10 21 bytes, or one trillion gigabytes (Exhibit 3.6). We are creating and capturing information on a scale that is hard to grasp.”

In 1986, data storage power was at 0. In 1993, data storage power was at approximately 25. In 2000, data storage power was at 50. All of a sudden by 2007, data storage power was at 300 exabytes. In 7 years, data storage increased by 275 exabytes. Technology rapidly changed during these 7 years and more people got involved with technology. It wasn’t until 2007 the first iphone came out but plasma monitors, television, and the eradication of brick phones was a huge part of technological success.

Link 2:

  • Dunbar, B. (2008, July 21). Space Program Benefits: NASA’s Positive Impact on Society.NASA. Retrieved July 14, 2014, from http://www.nasa.gov/50th/50th_magazine/benefits.html
  • The Cold War was a period of competition, tension, and conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union that began after World War Two. The Cold War dominated international affairs for decades and the space race and the arms race developed because of this competition. By the end of the 1980’s each side had spent trillions of dollars to possess nuclear weapons and the means of delivering these weapons on their enemies. Though many Americans opposed the use of nuclear weapons, because of the Cold War and the competition between the United States and the Soviet Union , many technological advances that we take for granted today were created. 
  • Nugget“We see the transformative effects of the Space Economy all around us through numerous technologies and life-saving capabilities. We see the Space Economy in the lives saved when advanced breast cancer screening catches tumors in time for treatment, or when a heart defibrillator restores the proper rhythm of a patient’s heart….We see it when weather satellites warn us of coming hurricanes, or when satellites provide information critical to understanding our environment and the effects of climate change. We see it when we use an ATM or pay for gas at the pump with an immediate electronic response via satellite. Technologies developed for exploring space are being used to increase crop yields and to search for good fishing regions at sea.”

Satellites are machines that orbit a star or a planet such as the Earth and they are important because they give us a bird’s eye view of our planet. This ability helps researchers and scientists to collect more data, more quickly as opposed to instruments on the ground. They  provide us with radio and cable television. They allow us to make cellular phone calls from long distances. They provide us with a global positioning system (GPS) so that we know exactly where we are and we can find directions to anywhere we want to go. They circle the earth and relay weather conditions and forecasts. The government uses them to spy on other countries in order to protect us. They are used for space research, which includes the SOHO satellites that observe the sun and provide us with early warnings of upcoming solar flares. These solar flares have been known to knock out various satellite communication links, which allow us to use our credit cards and to use beepers. Satellites even monitor crops and tell farmers which fields need to be fertilized in order to produce healthy crops of corn and other foods. All of these satellite services are very valuable to us. 

  • Nugget: “NASA’s “Software of the Year” award went to Internet-based Global Differential GPS (IGDG), a C-language package that provides an end-to-end system capability for GPS-based real-time positioning and orbit determination. Developed at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the software is being used to operate and control real-time GPS data streaming from NASA’s Global GPS Network. The Federal Aviation Administration has adopted the software’s use into the Wide Area Augmentation System program that provides pilots in U.S. airspace with real-time, meter-level accurate knowledge of their positions.”

Mobile application development is the process by which application software is developed for low-power handheld devices, such as personal digital assistantsenterprise digital assistants or mobile phones. These applications can be pre-installed on phones during manufacturing, downloaded by customers from various mobile software distribution platforms, or delivered as web applications using server-side or client-side processing (e.g. JavaScript) to provide an “application-like” experience within a Web browser. Application software developers also have to consider a lengthy array of screen sizes, hardware specifications and configurations. Without the development of the C-language package or the invention of the Global GPS Network, we wouldn’t see any applications for mobile devices, which means a lack of social media, and no technological innovations. 

Link 3:

  • Launius, R. (2009, November 17). An unintended consequence of the IGY: Eisenhower, Sputnik, the Founding of NASA. . Retrieved July 6, 2014, from http://www.sciencedirect.com.proxy.library.vcu.edu/science/article/pii/S0094576509005098
  • On October 4, 1957, the Soviet Union launched the first Earth-circling artificial satellite and the United States responded by taking numerous actions aimed at “remediating” a Cold War crisis. This included the establishment of a separate civilian space agency charged with the conduct of an official program of scientific and technological space exploration, consolidation of Department of Defense space activities, the passage of the National Defense Education Act, the creation of a Presidential Science Advisor, and a host of lesser actions. Without the creation of NASA, technologoly would have been innovative at such a slow pace. The Cold War single handedly changed everything. 
  • Nugget: “In October 1957 those who had been calling for aggressive action in space, although previously checked at many turns, found a captive audience in the White House. The moment came dramatically on the evening of October 4 when word reached Washington that the Soviets had launched an orbital satellite as part of their contribution to the IGY. At the end of a long week of scientific meetings concerning the IGY taking place in Washington, D.C., scientists gathered at the Soviet Union’s embassy to celebrate their activities. It was the appropriate culmination of a week-long set of international scientific meetings. It was also, in the cynical Cold War world of international intrigue between the United States and the Soviet Union, an opportunity to gather national security intelligence and engage in petty games of one-up-man-ship between the rivals. This one would prove far different. The one-upmanship continued, but it was far from petty. To a remarkable degree, the Soviet announcement that evening changed the course of the Cold War.” 

The creation of Sputnik was one of the most controversial events during the Cold War. It spurred controversy and generated the Space Race. The Space Race was a huge chunk of the Cold War. Science and technology rose, and the amount of people that were engaged into this technology advancement was incredible. The whole world was watching, and technology took a boom for the better.

  • Nugget: “So what would have been different had there not been a Sputnik? The rocketry programs of the United States were well in hand in 1957 and there is every reason to believe America would have continued on as it did.43The same is true of the satellite reconnaissance effort.44 Space science was being pursued expeditiously through a variety of avenues; even with efforts to send probes to the Moon, and except for an acceleration of effort probably would have been continued along pretty much the same path as after Sputnik.45Communication satellites were being pursued by AT&T and might have even achieved success earlier had there been less government involvement.46 It may be that Sputnik, and especially the failure to manage its ramifications, was responsible for both the good and ill that followed.47” 

This single nugget explains what would’ve happened without Sputnik…the first satellite, or a ball of metal rather, sent into space by at the time, the U.S.S.R. We wouldn’t have been able to witness man landing on the moon, or instagram uploads from our phones, or witness the revealing of the iPhone 6 until 10/15 years from now.

Synthesis: It’s really crazy to see how the Space Race and the Cold War overall led to the development and innovation of more complex yet human friendly technological devices. What once was a spin-dial phone has now become a touch screen smart phone. We once used to look at maps, and now we use a  GPS from our mobile phones. If we needed to share ideas, we once needed to be together and share. Today, twitter and Tumblr allows us to share our ideas publicly to the world, instagram allows us to share pictures when we once used to use photo albums, and there are many more tech driven ideas that all started because of the innovation of technology from the Cold War. Without technology, social media would be a whole different ball park to this date.

 

Research Nugget #2

Link 1:

  • Embrick, J. (2014, May 15). NASA Ranked High in J.D. Power’s Inaugural Social Media Study of Government. NASA. Retrieved July 14, 2014, from http://www.nasa.gov/press/2014/may/nasa-ranked-high-in-jd-power-s-inaugural-social-media-study-of-government/#.U8QeJvldWSo
  • in this article, there is a description of an award for the most interaction with the public through social media. This award is presented by J.D. Power. The award states that NASA ranked high with how NASA interacts through social media. There are many links involved where when you click, the website basically insists that everything NASA is doing is updated regularly with many pictures, videos, and descriptions.
  • Nugget“Increasingly, more and more people are getting their news from online sources, and we strive to share our story of exploration and discovery with the public through these digital channels, including social media,” said David Weaver, associate administrator for Communications at NASA Headquarters in Washington. “As NASA embarks on missions to go farther in space than ever before, we will look for new ways to engage the public and share the experience.”

With the higher usage of smart phones and technology improving the iPads and Notebooks, NASA understands how to grab publics attention at its finest. With the implementation of regular updates though instagram, twitter, tumblr, and it’s own website, NASA ensures a high rate of public engagement.

  • Nugget: “NASA Socials, formerly known as NASA Tweetups, have brought thousands of people who engage with the agency via social media together for unique in-person experiences of exploration and discovery. Since 2009, NASA has hosted 80 NASA Socials at more than a dozen locations. Attendees have had the opportunity to witness space shuttle launches, spacecraft launches to the moon, Jupiter and Mars, fly an F/A-18 flight simulator and rub elbows with astronauts and NASA’s administrator.”

This is one of the ways NASA uses social media to engage the public. To this date, witnessing public launches and national launches is still popular. In order to keep the public hyped about such events, NASA hosts these socials at many locations so that many people have the opportunity to witness many launches, and missions. Simulators provide an experience that one can’t actually go through in real life. The public also has the opportunity to go through these simulations that astronauts and mission specialists do.

Link 2:

  • NASA. (2013, May 15). Social Media Accreditation Opens for Next Orbital Sciences Antares Launch. NASA. Retrieved July 14, 2014, from http://www.nasa.gov/content/social-media-accreditation-opens-for-next-orbital-sciences-antares-launch/#.U8Qi4PldWSo
  • The link that I chosen is an example of a NASA Social. For a governmental agency, it is important to show the public what is going on with them. So NASA invites social media users to apply and out of those who apply, a certain amount are selected. These special few are able to hang around engineering teams, and see what goes on before a launch and even after launch. They get the ability to get media passes and see launches from up close. The media users must also be active with their own media accounts, such as twitter, tumblr, and instagram just to name a few.
  • Nugget: “Social media credentials give users a chance to apply for the same access as journalists in an effort to align the access and experience of social media representatives with those of traditional media. People, who actively collect, report, analyze and disseminate news on social networking platforms are encouraged to apply for media credentials. Selection is not random. All social media accreditation applications will be considered on a case-by-case basis. Those chosen must prove through the registration process they meet specific engagement criteria.”

To ensure that NASA gets every bit of attention through the social media, they get the best social media users to apply. They go through an application process and have to meet certain criteria. When NASA selects these social media users, they stress the fact to engage them into their accounts. When the NASA Social is over, they expect the users to blow up their feeds with all kinds of news and experiences. NASA gets every bit of information out to the public not only through their own websites and social media accounts, but through others as well.

  • Nugget: “Do I need to have a social media account to register?
 Yes. This event is designed for people who:
    • Actively use multiple social networking platforms and tools to disseminate information to a unique audience.
    • Regularly produce new content that features multimedia elements.
    • Have the potential to reach a large number of people using digital platforms.
    • Reach a unique audience, separate and distinctive from traditional news media and/or NASA audiences.
    • Must have an established history of posting content on social media platforms.
    • Have previous postings that are highly visible, respected and widely recognized.”

According to NASA, in order to attend or to be considered at least, applicants have to meet the criteria listed above at least. When NASA wants to go out of its way to reach the public, they rely on their NASA Socials. These programs are highly competitive and require a high amount of individuals to apply, and that’s exactly what happens.

Link 3:

  •  Mulready, R. (2013, September 15). What NASA Can Teach You About Social Media Marketing. . Retrieved July 14, 2014, from http://rickmulready.com/nasa-social-media-marketing/
  • John Yembrick is a social media genius for NASA and completely transformed it’s vision to get it’s name out there and get information about NASA’s current and future goals to the public. The way NASA operates its company is as a marketing frame. In order for any company to get its name out and let people know what it does and how they do it, marketing is the access to the public. Any company looking to grow and expand should look at the way NASA operates its social media platforms.
  • Nugget: “Are you using social media to tell the story of your business?  If you’re not, you’re missing a huge opportunity to connect with your consumers.

    One way to tell a story is by giving your most popular flagship product its own voice.

    NASA has taken this approach with its Mars Curiosity Rover, giving it a voice through dedicated FacebookTwitter and Foursquare accounts.

    The Rover speaks in the first person in a fun and witty tone and has built up millions of fans and followers.

    The campaign has been so successful that, as I mentioned above, the Rover won a Shorty Award for Foursquare Mayor of the Year.  That’s a pretty big feat for somebody who doesn’t even have a smartphone.”

With technology advancing like no other, NASA gave one of its most popular and famous rover the ability to voice what it sees by giving it multiple social media accounts. The rover has uploaded all of its missions in first person. This idea has given millions of people a view of what’s going on outside of our planet. The usage of social media plays a huge role for NASA, and they have taken nothing for granted.

  • Nugget: ”

    I can’t stress this enough and have written about it extensively.

    Find out where your customers hangout online and then make sure you have a presence there, too.

    Pretty simple, but so many businesses overlook this step.

    Although NASA is on several social channels, it focuses a lot of its effort on Google+.

    Why?  Google+ users tend to be tech savvy and forward thinking, which aligns really well with NASA’s target audience.  So, NASA leans on it as an effective channel to communicate with its audience.

    They also use Google Hangouts to hold live (and free) Q & As and informational meet-ups for their followers.  According to John, these have become a super successful way to connect with their audience.

    How could you use Google Hangouts to engage and connect with your customers?”

Back in older days, if somebody wanted to see someone’s face and interact, one would have to be in person to witness such events. But today, Oovoo, Skype, FaceTime, and Google+ are just a few methods to use in order to completely revolutionize connections. Informational meetups are a huge success for NASA, as they take information and let the viewers know. They also have their own NASA channel on television, which displays many different kinds of information that viewers see.

Synthesis:  All three of these links have a big connection with each other and how technology has influenced a mass public awareness through social media. Through NASA’s Socials, the public has an opportunity to see what NASA does in person. They are able to see many teams work together and see what it’s like for a launch or even a mission. By seeing a mission, they upload everything about their trip over the social media for more awareness through the public, enhancing NASA to not worry about budget cuts that could potentially close the agency. Actually, NASA doesn’t even have a budget for social media. We see many pictures being uploaded by NASA, but when they use rovers and create accounts for them, everything because first person. In social media today, we see how these rovers have their own accounts so the public can see what they are up to. To sum it all up, this happens to show that NASA has a huge marketing capability. After all, government agencies tend to be more known for their bureaucracy and red tape than for their openness and social prowess. 

Reflective Writing for Concept Experience #5

When I first read the assignment and its directions, it reminded me of a book. The reason is because a book can be so bland, and boring sometimes. When a kid is reading a book for the first time, there are many images that make it easier to conceptualize and comprehend what one is reading. Just because we might have grown up and gotten older does not mean that we’re having difficulties of comprehension. For example, when someone was reading that Facebook article, how does that someone know what an algorithm is? That’s when you insert a hyperlink or a video to make comprehension much simpler. This is what I thought about going into the assignment, making an article more comprehensible but also add some humor to it that people think that’s going on in society today.

When I am editing an article and making it more flamboyant by adding links, images, pictures, videos, or gifs, I make sure that they are in specific locations. When there is a word that no one understands, I add a link to that word so that the reader can understand exactly what it means. When there is a video that is similar to the article I will add that in too. When I use gifs and pictures, they tend to be jocular, serious, or an image that displays of what the object may be or something artistic. Every time I do this to an article, it’s not that I have 5 specific ones that stand out, but rather they should all standout.

Now that I made this article more interesting, when I do my Inquiry Project I will follow the similar steps. If I wrote a bunch of paragraphs and through them into a messy paper that is uploaded to this blog, it’ll look very depressing. This is why I will be having many images, links, videos, and gifs. I will do this inorder to not only gain the readers awareness, but to make it more interesting and fun. If someone really wanted to read about my topic they could’ve gone to the internet or asked me to write a paper instead. But to gain peoples views, and to make this all very exciting, I will add as much as I can. One thing I definitely need to learn is how to embed videos into my blog, because I seem to be having problems with that, as well as adding gifs. But by the time my final product comes around, you will definitely be impressed.

impression

Concept Media #5: Multimedia

Facebook tinkered with users’ feeds for a massive psychology experiment

Scientists at Facebook have published a paper showing that they manipulated the content seen by more than 600,000 usersSo many people 
in an attempt to determine whether this would affect their emotional state. The paper, “Experimental evidence of massive-scale emotional contagion through social networks,” was published in The Proceedings Of The National Academy Of Sciences. It shows how Facebook data scientists tweaked the algorithm that determines which posts appear on users’ news feeds—specifically, researchers skewed the number of positive or negative terms seen by randomly selected users. Facebook then analyzed the future postings of those users over the course of a week to see if people responded with increased positivity or negativity of their own, thus answering the question of whether emotional states can be transmitted across a social network. Result: They can! Which is great news for Facebook data scientists hoping to prove a point about modern psychology. It’s less great for the people having their emotions secretly manipulated.
________
In order to sign up for Facebook, users must click a box saying they agree to the Facebook Data Use Policy, giving the company the right to access and use the information posted on the site. Breach Protocols
The policy lists a variety of potential uses for your data, most of them related to advertising, but there’s also a bit about “internal operations, including troubleshooting, data analysis, testing, research and service improvement.” Sketchy 
In the study, the authors point out that they stayed within the data policy’s liberal constraints by using machine analysis to pick out positive and negative posts, meaning no user data containing personal information was actually viewed by human researchers.  Society
And there was no need to ask study “participants” for consent, as they’d already given it by agreeing to Facebook’s terms of service in the first place.
________
Facebook data scientist Adam Kramer is listed as the study’s lead author. In an interview the company released a few years ago, Kramer is quoted as saying he joined Facebook because “Facebook data constitutes the largest field study in the history of the world.” It’s a charming reminder that Facebook isn’t just the place you go to see pictures of your friends’ kids or your racist uncle’s latest rant against the government—it’s also an exciting research lab, with all of us as potential test subjects. 
test

My Research Strategy

1. What is your research question? This should be revised since your inquiry proposal and should begin with HOW or WHY or maybe WHAT?  Be as specific as you can. Underline the key concepts (the most important words or phrases).

How has NASA interacted and gained awareness of the public from the beginning of NASA’s creation (1958), to present day

 

2.   List the key concepts you underlined in #1. After each key concept, put a colon and write the  related words or synonyms. Don’t forget to use OR for related words and concepts.

Write your own answers here:

Awareness: Information or perception or realization or experience or consciousness or recognition

Public: universal or social or popular or communal or mutual or national

Interacted: collaborate or connect or combine or reach out or relate

 

3. Take a look at the concepts and related phrases you listed in Number 2. In the space below, use the asterisk (*) to truncate search terms as appropriate.

Universal Recognition of NASA

Popular Perception through Media of NASA

Social Experience of Space Race