Research Nugget #3

Link 1:

  • Niemeier, S., & Zocchi, A. (2013). Game Changing Technologies. Reshaping retail: why technology is transforming the industry and how to win in the new consumer driven world (). Somerset: John Wiley and Sons.
  • In order for NASA to develop how it interacted with social media through the change of technology since its creation, that required some form of technological inventions and innovations. Game changing technologies led to the change of the world. Communication changed, the internet blew up and web services grew exponentially, sensing and scanning and the use of voice recognition became vital, commerce, and geolocation expanded like no other. But two of the most vital that changed the game were media capturing and media consumption. Photography, video recording, audio recording, music, and videos all lead to what we call productivity. Productivity is defined as creating documents, editing and sharing, storage and synchronization, sharing files across all kinds of devices, and managing contacts and keeping everything organized.
  • Nugget:  “As mobile devices have improved, usage and penetration have soared (Exhibit 3.8). In the United States, 40 percent of all mobile phones sold by the third quarter of 2011 were smartphones— more than double their share in 2009. And according to the technology research firm Gartner, smartphones and tablets combined make up 70 percent of all devices sold in 2012. 6 Growth in mobile usage outpaces PC-based use of the Internet, and mobile apps have already surpassed PC Web browsing in terms of time spent per user (81 minutes versus 74 in a 2011 survey).” 

The high productivity of phones show that people rely on their phones more than PCs. With smart phone technology, social media is right at our finger tips. A single application can put us into a network of hundreds, thousands, and even millions of people. These applications consist of news, twitter, instagram, tumblr, whatsapp, and so many more. Today, smartphones only come with a data plan, so browsing the internet has never been easier.

  • Nugget: “Capacity to store information in cheap and stable ways has advanced at incredible rates, in multiple storage media and on connected devices, and in the vast data centers that host corporate and consumer IT services (Exhibit 3.5). Storage media are becoming denser, so the physical size of storage devices is shrinking as capacity grows, and their cost is falling. The software to manage that storage and make it widely accessible and secure likewise has improved rapidly. Researchers at IDC note that 2.7 zettabytes of information will be stored in 2012, replicated across many, many devices— an increase of 48 percent over 2011. 5 A zettabyte is 1 × 10 21 bytes, or one trillion gigabytes (Exhibit 3.6). We are creating and capturing information on a scale that is hard to grasp.”

In 1986, data storage power was at 0. In 1993, data storage power was at approximately 25. In 2000, data storage power was at 50. All of a sudden by 2007, data storage power was at 300 exabytes. In 7 years, data storage increased by 275 exabytes. Technology rapidly changed during these 7 years and more people got involved with technology. It wasn’t until 2007 the first iphone came out but plasma monitors, television, and the eradication of brick phones was a huge part of technological success.

Link 2:

  • Dunbar, B. (2008, July 21). Space Program Benefits: NASA’s Positive Impact on Society.NASA. Retrieved July 14, 2014, from http://www.nasa.gov/50th/50th_magazine/benefits.html
  • The Cold War was a period of competition, tension, and conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union that began after World War Two. The Cold War dominated international affairs for decades and the space race and the arms race developed because of this competition. By the end of the 1980’s each side had spent trillions of dollars to possess nuclear weapons and the means of delivering these weapons on their enemies. Though many Americans opposed the use of nuclear weapons, because of the Cold War and the competition between the United States and the Soviet Union , many technological advances that we take for granted today were created. 
  • Nugget“We see the transformative effects of the Space Economy all around us through numerous technologies and life-saving capabilities. We see the Space Economy in the lives saved when advanced breast cancer screening catches tumors in time for treatment, or when a heart defibrillator restores the proper rhythm of a patient’s heart….We see it when weather satellites warn us of coming hurricanes, or when satellites provide information critical to understanding our environment and the effects of climate change. We see it when we use an ATM or pay for gas at the pump with an immediate electronic response via satellite. Technologies developed for exploring space are being used to increase crop yields and to search for good fishing regions at sea.”

Satellites are machines that orbit a star or a planet such as the Earth and they are important because they give us a bird’s eye view of our planet. This ability helps researchers and scientists to collect more data, more quickly as opposed to instruments on the ground. They  provide us with radio and cable television. They allow us to make cellular phone calls from long distances. They provide us with a global positioning system (GPS) so that we know exactly where we are and we can find directions to anywhere we want to go. They circle the earth and relay weather conditions and forecasts. The government uses them to spy on other countries in order to protect us. They are used for space research, which includes the SOHO satellites that observe the sun and provide us with early warnings of upcoming solar flares. These solar flares have been known to knock out various satellite communication links, which allow us to use our credit cards and to use beepers. Satellites even monitor crops and tell farmers which fields need to be fertilized in order to produce healthy crops of corn and other foods. All of these satellite services are very valuable to us. 

  • Nugget: “NASA’s “Software of the Year” award went to Internet-based Global Differential GPS (IGDG), a C-language package that provides an end-to-end system capability for GPS-based real-time positioning and orbit determination. Developed at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the software is being used to operate and control real-time GPS data streaming from NASA’s Global GPS Network. The Federal Aviation Administration has adopted the software’s use into the Wide Area Augmentation System program that provides pilots in U.S. airspace with real-time, meter-level accurate knowledge of their positions.”

Mobile application development is the process by which application software is developed for low-power handheld devices, such as personal digital assistantsenterprise digital assistants or mobile phones. These applications can be pre-installed on phones during manufacturing, downloaded by customers from various mobile software distribution platforms, or delivered as web applications using server-side or client-side processing (e.g. JavaScript) to provide an “application-like” experience within a Web browser. Application software developers also have to consider a lengthy array of screen sizes, hardware specifications and configurations. Without the development of the C-language package or the invention of the Global GPS Network, we wouldn’t see any applications for mobile devices, which means a lack of social media, and no technological innovations. 

Link 3:

  • Launius, R. (2009, November 17). An unintended consequence of the IGY: Eisenhower, Sputnik, the Founding of NASA. . Retrieved July 6, 2014, from http://www.sciencedirect.com.proxy.library.vcu.edu/science/article/pii/S0094576509005098
  • On October 4, 1957, the Soviet Union launched the first Earth-circling artificial satellite and the United States responded by taking numerous actions aimed at “remediating” a Cold War crisis. This included the establishment of a separate civilian space agency charged with the conduct of an official program of scientific and technological space exploration, consolidation of Department of Defense space activities, the passage of the National Defense Education Act, the creation of a Presidential Science Advisor, and a host of lesser actions. Without the creation of NASA, technologoly would have been innovative at such a slow pace. The Cold War single handedly changed everything. 
  • Nugget: “In October 1957 those who had been calling for aggressive action in space, although previously checked at many turns, found a captive audience in the White House. The moment came dramatically on the evening of October 4 when word reached Washington that the Soviets had launched an orbital satellite as part of their contribution to the IGY. At the end of a long week of scientific meetings concerning the IGY taking place in Washington, D.C., scientists gathered at the Soviet Union’s embassy to celebrate their activities. It was the appropriate culmination of a week-long set of international scientific meetings. It was also, in the cynical Cold War world of international intrigue between the United States and the Soviet Union, an opportunity to gather national security intelligence and engage in petty games of one-up-man-ship between the rivals. This one would prove far different. The one-upmanship continued, but it was far from petty. To a remarkable degree, the Soviet announcement that evening changed the course of the Cold War.” 

The creation of Sputnik was one of the most controversial events during the Cold War. It spurred controversy and generated the Space Race. The Space Race was a huge chunk of the Cold War. Science and technology rose, and the amount of people that were engaged into this technology advancement was incredible. The whole world was watching, and technology took a boom for the better.

  • Nugget: “So what would have been different had there not been a Sputnik? The rocketry programs of the United States were well in hand in 1957 and there is every reason to believe America would have continued on as it did.43The same is true of the satellite reconnaissance effort.44 Space science was being pursued expeditiously through a variety of avenues; even with efforts to send probes to the Moon, and except for an acceleration of effort probably would have been continued along pretty much the same path as after Sputnik.45Communication satellites were being pursued by AT&T and might have even achieved success earlier had there been less government involvement.46 It may be that Sputnik, and especially the failure to manage its ramifications, was responsible for both the good and ill that followed.47” 

This single nugget explains what would’ve happened without Sputnik…the first satellite, or a ball of metal rather, sent into space by at the time, the U.S.S.R. We wouldn’t have been able to witness man landing on the moon, or instagram uploads from our phones, or witness the revealing of the iPhone 6 until 10/15 years from now.

Synthesis: It’s really crazy to see how the Space Race and the Cold War overall led to the development and innovation of more complex yet human friendly technological devices. What once was a spin-dial phone has now become a touch screen smart phone. We once used to look at maps, and now we use a  GPS from our mobile phones. If we needed to share ideas, we once needed to be together and share. Today, twitter and Tumblr allows us to share our ideas publicly to the world, instagram allows us to share pictures when we once used to use photo albums, and there are many more tech driven ideas that all started because of the innovation of technology from the Cold War. Without technology, social media would be a whole different ball park to this date.

 

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