Tag Archives: Exploration


Finding answers to a research question is an important part of any presentation, but the answers have to be articulated by main claims and because clauses.

The development and innovations of technology by NASA since 1958 have played a crucial role in the advancement of social media because:

  1. NASA improved the computer and signal clarity by adding speed and massive networking to share multimedia such as images and videos through networks across the world wide web.
  2. The technology NASA developed for improving its own missions has resulted in commercial applications around the world. 
  3. During the Cold War from the period NASA was established (1958-1991), social media saw it’s greatest innovative period with the indirect development of companies that became user friendly and opened networks across the world.
  4. NASA took advantage of all social media aspects and won an award for the most interaction with the public through social  media presented by J.D Power, competing against major companies and government agencies.

1. John Embrick (2014), an associate administrator for Communications at NASA Headquarters in Washington, acknowledges that, “increasingly, more and more people are getting their news from online sources, and we strive to share our story of exploration and discovery with the public through these digital channels, including social media.”

2. As J.R. Wilson (2008), a heavy researcher for technological development part of the Human Systems Integration Division,  reports that, NASA’s “Software of the Year” award went to Internet-based Global Differential GPS (IGDG), a C-language package that provides an end-to-end system capability for GPS-based real-time positioning and orbit determination. Developed at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the software is being used to operate and control real-time GPS data streaming from NASA’s Global GPS Network. The Federal Aviation Administration has adopted the software’s use into the Wide Area Augmentation System program that provides pilots in U.S. airspace with real-time, meter-level accurate knowledge of their positions.”

3.  John Yembrick, a blogger and a business strategist, uses his business mindset to encourage entrprenuers by recognizing that, “NASA uses social media to tell a story; the story of why space exploration is important to the fabric of people’s lives and NASA’s place in it.”

Research Nugget #4

Link 1:

  • Crawford, S. (2011, March 3). How has NASA improved TV technology?. HowStuffWorks. Retrieved July 12, 2014, from http://science.howstuffworks.com/innovation/nasa-inventions/nasa-improve-tv-technology1.htm
  • The technology NASA developed for improving its own missions has resulted in commercial applications around the world. NASA calls these “spinoffs.” Not only did they develop multiple applications for the computer, but also helped develop it into a user friendly technological device. For example, we take the computer mouse for granted now, using it countless times a day to do work or homework, to pay bills or buy things, or just to poke around looking for cool Web sites. But the device started out as “one small and relatively simple component” of a broader goal, according to Bob Taylor, who provided NASA funding for research that led to the device in the early 1960s. Computers were still thought of as machines, with a sphere like device to guide yourself on the machine. 
  • Nugget: “You can purchase a TV satellite dish to capture TV signals directly from a satellite service provider rather than a land-based TV tower or cable connection. NASA developments for improving the picture and sound received from satellites are now part of commercial satellite dishes.” 

NASA has increased its development with improving satellite reception quality with all kinds of devices. What is broadcasted on our TV comes from a receiver where signals come from a TV tower. Signals from the TV towers come from Satellites, with the origin of the signals coming from the companies. The improvement of these signals and receivers are due to NASA, as what they developed is not only for the television, but computers, and smart phones as well. The stronger the signal, the clearer and faster the quality is, the easier it is for us to access social media.

  • Nugget: “Another NASA TV innovation resulted from the demands of a new, unexpected audience following the 1969 moon landing: TV viewers intrigued by outer space [source: Abramson]. NASA TV broadcasts immediately followed, carrying footage of subsequent Apollo missions. NASA television is publicly accessible and free to watch, and today it’s an all-digital broadcast featuring four separate channels: Public, Media, Education and HD. Thanks to NASA TV, viewers have shared in NASA’s triumphs and tragedies, from the first images captured from the surface of Mars to the loss of the Space Shuttle Challenger to the present. In 2009, NASA TV received the Philo T. Farnsworth Primetime Emmy Award in recognition of “engineering excellence’ and to commemorate “the 40th anniversary of the technological innovations” that led to the first live TV broadcast from the moon [source: NASA].”

Social media is a large platform. They can be websites and applications that enable users to create and share content or to participate in social networking. The first images from the space launches where displayed everywhere from TVs to internet. NASA displayed them everywhere, and internet users took the information and ran with it. Images were printed, shared to emails, and basically was a start of social media for NASA.

Link 2:

  • Hendricks, D. (2013, May 8). The Complete History of Social Media: Then And Now. Small Business Trends. Retrieved July 12, 2014, from http://smallbiztrends.com/2013/05/the-complete-history-of-social-media-infographic.html
  • Interacting with friends and family across long distances has been a concern of humans for centuries. As social animals, people have always relied on communication to strengthen their relationships. When face-to-face discussions are impossible or inconvenient, humans have dreamed up plenty of creative solutions. It is important to understand the evolution of technology because with out it, communication would be a massive issue. 
  • Nugget: ”

    Two important discoveries happened in the last decade of the 1800s: The telephone in 1890 and the radio in 1891.

    Both technologies are still in use today, although the modern versions are much more sophisticated than their predecessors. Telephone lines and radio signals enabled people to communicate across great distances instantaneously, something that mankind had never experienced before.”

Now by looking at this nugget, one can wonder its importance. Why are the radio and telephone so important? The reason being that those two technological inventions were the birth of social media. The telephone started to eradicate snail mail, and the radio allowed programs to be played. People would share ideas and knowledge over the phone and radio and it was a huge stepping stone for the progression of more technological innovations for social media.

  • Nugget:

    “Technology began to change very rapidly in the 20th Century. After the first super computers were created in the 1940s, scientists and engineers began to develop ways to create networks between those computers, and this would later lead to the birth of the Internet.

    The earliest forms of the Internet, such as CompuServe, were developed in the 1960s. Primitive forms of email were also developed during this time. By the 70s, networking technology had improved, and 1979′s UseNet allowed users to communicate through a virtual newsletter.

    By the 1980s, home computers were becoming more common and social media was becoming more sophisticated. Internet relay chats, or IRCs, were first used in 1988 and continued to be popular well into the 1990′s.

    The first recognizable social media site, Six Degrees, was created in 1997. It enabled users to upload a profile and make friends with other users. In 1999, the first blogging sites became popular, creating a social media sensation that’s still popular today.”

Some of the first computers ran with only 10 megabytes of speed and were worth $5665. Since then, we clearly came a long way. The biggest development was the development of networks. These networks connected people together, and eventually people were connected internationally. But until then, people started companies that were designed for online chats. SixDegrees.com was a social network service website that lasted from 1997 to 2001 and was based on the Web of Contacts model of social networking. It was named after the six degrees of separation concept and allowed users to list friends, family members and acquaintances both on the site and externally; external contacts were invited to join the site. Users could send messages and post bulletin board items to people in their first, second, and third degrees, and see their connection to any other user on the site. It was one of the first manifestations of social networking websites in the format now seen today. 

Link 3:

  • Curtis, D. A. (2013, March 7). The Brief History of Social Media. The Brief History of Social Media. Retrieved July 10, 2014, from http://www2.uncp.edu/home/acurtis/NewMedia/SocialMedia/SocialMediaHistory.html
  • Social media are Internet sites where people interact freely, sharing and discussing information about each other and their lives, using a multimedia mix of personal words, pictures, videos and audio. At these Web sites, individuals and groups create and exchange content and engage in person-to-person conversations. They appear in many forms including blogs and microblogs, forums and message boards, social networks, wikis, virtual worlds, social bookmarking, tagging and news, writing communities, digital storytelling and scrapbooking, and data, content, image and video sharing, podcast portals, and collective intelligence. 
  • Nugget: ”
    The Prodigy online service was introduced. Later, it grew to become the second-largest online service provider in 1990, with 465,000 subscribers compared with CompuServe’s 600,000. In 1994, Prodigy pioneered sales of dial-up connections to the World Wide Web and hosting services for Web publishers. Subsequently, it was resold repeatedly and now is part of AT&T.

    The America Online (AOL) service opened.

AOL was the first online service of its kind. AOL Inc. (previously known as America Online, written as AOLis an American multinational mass media corporation based in New York City which develops, grows, and invests in brands and web sites. The company’s business spans digital distribution of content, products, and services, which it offers to consumers, publishers, and advertisers. AOL was also a fantastic way to open networking to a whole new level. This enabled users across the country to interact and share multimedia. 

  • Nugget:

    Tripod opened as a community online for college students and young adults.


    CERN donated the WWW technology to the world.

    Students at NCSA (National Center for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign) displayed the first graphical browser, Mosaic, and Web pages as we know them today were born.

    More than 200 Web servers were online.


    Beverly Hills Internet (BHI) started Geocities, which allowed users to create their own websites modeled after types of urban areas. GeoCities would cross the one million member mark by 1997. There were 38 million user Web pages on GeoCities before it was shut down for United States users in 2009. Yahoo, which opened as a major Internet search engine and index in 1994, owns GeoCities today and offers it only as a web hosting service for Japan.

    More than 1,500 Web servers were online in 1994 and people were referring to the Internet as theInformation Superhighway.

    EarthLink started up as an online service provider.


    Newsweek headlines an article: The Internet? Bah! Hype alert: Why cyberspace isn’t, and will never be, nirvana.   read it here »


    The Web had one million sites.

    Blogging begins.

    SixDegrees.com lets users create profiles and list friends.

    AOL Instant Messenger lets users chat.

    Blackboard is founded as an online course management system for educators and learners.


    Google opens as a major Internet search engine and index.


    Friends Reunited, remembered as the first online social network to achieve prominence, was founded in Great Britain to relocate past school pals.


    In the world of business and commerce, the dot.com bubble burst and the future online seemed bleak as the millennium turned.

    Seventy million computers were connected to the Internet.


    Wikipedia, the online encyclopedia and world’s largest wiki, was started.

    Apple started selling iPods.

These few years inbetween 1992-2001 seemed to be one of the fastest growing technological times that highly influenced social media. The creation of Tripod gave college kids and graduates the ability to network with each other, and meet new individuals. In 1993, the creation of webpages gave a massive boost for many wesbites. Today there are millions of websites. When 1997 hit, the amount of pages were not only incredible, but blogging had started. People could share ideas, pictures, and all kinds of multimedia content. It’s crazy to see how by 2000 there were 70 million computers connected to the internet. Today there are twice as more due to the boost of technology. This means that computers became less expensive, laptops became more popular, smartphones are user friendly and enable you to access anything you want, and also the development of tablets.

Synthesis: For my research, these three links are definitely some of the more important ones. The development of technology affected not only social media, but how NASA uses these innovations to obtain users and keep the public updated constantly. The development of the satellite by NASA directly affected technology, and social media improved. Engineers were able to develop websites and improve the internet. Dot.com companies exploded, and users were able to obtain access to the internet and connect with people not only within their country but across the world. Its pretty awesome how NASA is interconnected into all of this because, after all, they are innovators.

Research Nugget #3

Link 1:

  • Niemeier, S., & Zocchi, A. (2013). Game Changing Technologies. Reshaping retail: why technology is transforming the industry and how to win in the new consumer driven world (). Somerset: John Wiley and Sons.
  • In order for NASA to develop how it interacted with social media through the change of technology since its creation, that required some form of technological inventions and innovations. Game changing technologies led to the change of the world. Communication changed, the internet blew up and web services grew exponentially, sensing and scanning and the use of voice recognition became vital, commerce, and geolocation expanded like no other. But two of the most vital that changed the game were media capturing and media consumption. Photography, video recording, audio recording, music, and videos all lead to what we call productivity. Productivity is defined as creating documents, editing and sharing, storage and synchronization, sharing files across all kinds of devices, and managing contacts and keeping everything organized.
  • Nugget:  “As mobile devices have improved, usage and penetration have soared (Exhibit 3.8). In the United States, 40 percent of all mobile phones sold by the third quarter of 2011 were smartphones— more than double their share in 2009. And according to the technology research firm Gartner, smartphones and tablets combined make up 70 percent of all devices sold in 2012. 6 Growth in mobile usage outpaces PC-based use of the Internet, and mobile apps have already surpassed PC Web browsing in terms of time spent per user (81 minutes versus 74 in a 2011 survey).” 

The high productivity of phones show that people rely on their phones more than PCs. With smart phone technology, social media is right at our finger tips. A single application can put us into a network of hundreds, thousands, and even millions of people. These applications consist of news, twitter, instagram, tumblr, whatsapp, and so many more. Today, smartphones only come with a data plan, so browsing the internet has never been easier.

  • Nugget: “Capacity to store information in cheap and stable ways has advanced at incredible rates, in multiple storage media and on connected devices, and in the vast data centers that host corporate and consumer IT services (Exhibit 3.5). Storage media are becoming denser, so the physical size of storage devices is shrinking as capacity grows, and their cost is falling. The software to manage that storage and make it widely accessible and secure likewise has improved rapidly. Researchers at IDC note that 2.7 zettabytes of information will be stored in 2012, replicated across many, many devices— an increase of 48 percent over 2011. 5 A zettabyte is 1 × 10 21 bytes, or one trillion gigabytes (Exhibit 3.6). We are creating and capturing information on a scale that is hard to grasp.”

In 1986, data storage power was at 0. In 1993, data storage power was at approximately 25. In 2000, data storage power was at 50. All of a sudden by 2007, data storage power was at 300 exabytes. In 7 years, data storage increased by 275 exabytes. Technology rapidly changed during these 7 years and more people got involved with technology. It wasn’t until 2007 the first iphone came out but plasma monitors, television, and the eradication of brick phones was a huge part of technological success.

Link 2:

  • Dunbar, B. (2008, July 21). Space Program Benefits: NASA’s Positive Impact on Society.NASA. Retrieved July 14, 2014, from http://www.nasa.gov/50th/50th_magazine/benefits.html
  • The Cold War was a period of competition, tension, and conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union that began after World War Two. The Cold War dominated international affairs for decades and the space race and the arms race developed because of this competition. By the end of the 1980’s each side had spent trillions of dollars to possess nuclear weapons and the means of delivering these weapons on their enemies. Though many Americans opposed the use of nuclear weapons, because of the Cold War and the competition between the United States and the Soviet Union , many technological advances that we take for granted today were created. 
  • Nugget“We see the transformative effects of the Space Economy all around us through numerous technologies and life-saving capabilities. We see the Space Economy in the lives saved when advanced breast cancer screening catches tumors in time for treatment, or when a heart defibrillator restores the proper rhythm of a patient’s heart….We see it when weather satellites warn us of coming hurricanes, or when satellites provide information critical to understanding our environment and the effects of climate change. We see it when we use an ATM or pay for gas at the pump with an immediate electronic response via satellite. Technologies developed for exploring space are being used to increase crop yields and to search for good fishing regions at sea.”

Satellites are machines that orbit a star or a planet such as the Earth and they are important because they give us a bird’s eye view of our planet. This ability helps researchers and scientists to collect more data, more quickly as opposed to instruments on the ground. They  provide us with radio and cable television. They allow us to make cellular phone calls from long distances. They provide us with a global positioning system (GPS) so that we know exactly where we are and we can find directions to anywhere we want to go. They circle the earth and relay weather conditions and forecasts. The government uses them to spy on other countries in order to protect us. They are used for space research, which includes the SOHO satellites that observe the sun and provide us with early warnings of upcoming solar flares. These solar flares have been known to knock out various satellite communication links, which allow us to use our credit cards and to use beepers. Satellites even monitor crops and tell farmers which fields need to be fertilized in order to produce healthy crops of corn and other foods. All of these satellite services are very valuable to us. 

  • Nugget: “NASA’s “Software of the Year” award went to Internet-based Global Differential GPS (IGDG), a C-language package that provides an end-to-end system capability for GPS-based real-time positioning and orbit determination. Developed at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the software is being used to operate and control real-time GPS data streaming from NASA’s Global GPS Network. The Federal Aviation Administration has adopted the software’s use into the Wide Area Augmentation System program that provides pilots in U.S. airspace with real-time, meter-level accurate knowledge of their positions.”

Mobile application development is the process by which application software is developed for low-power handheld devices, such as personal digital assistantsenterprise digital assistants or mobile phones. These applications can be pre-installed on phones during manufacturing, downloaded by customers from various mobile software distribution platforms, or delivered as web applications using server-side or client-side processing (e.g. JavaScript) to provide an “application-like” experience within a Web browser. Application software developers also have to consider a lengthy array of screen sizes, hardware specifications and configurations. Without the development of the C-language package or the invention of the Global GPS Network, we wouldn’t see any applications for mobile devices, which means a lack of social media, and no technological innovations. 

Link 3:

  • Launius, R. (2009, November 17). An unintended consequence of the IGY: Eisenhower, Sputnik, the Founding of NASA. . Retrieved July 6, 2014, from http://www.sciencedirect.com.proxy.library.vcu.edu/science/article/pii/S0094576509005098
  • On October 4, 1957, the Soviet Union launched the first Earth-circling artificial satellite and the United States responded by taking numerous actions aimed at “remediating” a Cold War crisis. This included the establishment of a separate civilian space agency charged with the conduct of an official program of scientific and technological space exploration, consolidation of Department of Defense space activities, the passage of the National Defense Education Act, the creation of a Presidential Science Advisor, and a host of lesser actions. Without the creation of NASA, technologoly would have been innovative at such a slow pace. The Cold War single handedly changed everything. 
  • Nugget: “In October 1957 those who had been calling for aggressive action in space, although previously checked at many turns, found a captive audience in the White House. The moment came dramatically on the evening of October 4 when word reached Washington that the Soviets had launched an orbital satellite as part of their contribution to the IGY. At the end of a long week of scientific meetings concerning the IGY taking place in Washington, D.C., scientists gathered at the Soviet Union’s embassy to celebrate their activities. It was the appropriate culmination of a week-long set of international scientific meetings. It was also, in the cynical Cold War world of international intrigue between the United States and the Soviet Union, an opportunity to gather national security intelligence and engage in petty games of one-up-man-ship between the rivals. This one would prove far different. The one-upmanship continued, but it was far from petty. To a remarkable degree, the Soviet announcement that evening changed the course of the Cold War.” 

The creation of Sputnik was one of the most controversial events during the Cold War. It spurred controversy and generated the Space Race. The Space Race was a huge chunk of the Cold War. Science and technology rose, and the amount of people that were engaged into this technology advancement was incredible. The whole world was watching, and technology took a boom for the better.

  • Nugget: “So what would have been different had there not been a Sputnik? The rocketry programs of the United States were well in hand in 1957 and there is every reason to believe America would have continued on as it did.43The same is true of the satellite reconnaissance effort.44 Space science was being pursued expeditiously through a variety of avenues; even with efforts to send probes to the Moon, and except for an acceleration of effort probably would have been continued along pretty much the same path as after Sputnik.45Communication satellites were being pursued by AT&T and might have even achieved success earlier had there been less government involvement.46 It may be that Sputnik, and especially the failure to manage its ramifications, was responsible for both the good and ill that followed.47” 

This single nugget explains what would’ve happened without Sputnik…the first satellite, or a ball of metal rather, sent into space by at the time, the U.S.S.R. We wouldn’t have been able to witness man landing on the moon, or instagram uploads from our phones, or witness the revealing of the iPhone 6 until 10/15 years from now.

Synthesis: It’s really crazy to see how the Space Race and the Cold War overall led to the development and innovation of more complex yet human friendly technological devices. What once was a spin-dial phone has now become a touch screen smart phone. We once used to look at maps, and now we use a  GPS from our mobile phones. If we needed to share ideas, we once needed to be together and share. Today, twitter and Tumblr allows us to share our ideas publicly to the world, instagram allows us to share pictures when we once used to use photo albums, and there are many more tech driven ideas that all started because of the innovation of technology from the Cold War. Without technology, social media would be a whole different ball park to this date.


Inquiry Project Proposal

The Earth is only a very minuscule part of our galaxy, and our universe. Back in the 1960s to early 2000s, the Space Program was one of the biggest and most popular ideas in the world. The Cold War consisted of a Space Race, with countries competing technologically to outlast each other. It was one of the most innovative time periods of our lives. NASA grew, and private companies developed pieces to define the space race, such as working on motors and heavy mathematics to further push our intellect.

Recently, we have not heard of any major discoveries or explorations. One idea that was last flirted with was exploring Mars and colonizing it. But as time went own, and budget cuts were initiated seriously from the Obama Administration, the future of NASA and space exploration has been in question.


As the world seems to be focusing on weapon technology and advancement of our kind, the space exploration period was the most innovative of the 20th century.  I want to see how has NASA interacted with the public and gained awareness of the public from the beginning of NASA’s creation (1958), to present day. With technology growing at the rapid time it is, it is important to understand how the space race furthered math, science, and the world of technology. There is definitely a lot going on that needs to be covered and understood, and it is time to revive the Space Race.

Space race

Progress Report/Research Reflection

Two weeks have already flown by and I have a few topics in mind that I can definitely use. I always like to talk about military topics, and ideas. But of late, space, NASA, extraterrestrial beings, and such kinds of topics have really been interesting. The first research that made me realize I want to study something relating space was when I was brainstorming for my inquiry project. When I was throwing ideas out there I thought out NASA and space.


Creating an interest inventory further pushed my ideas about space. It was also during this time that my dad came home and told me that there was a channel just for NASA. Launches are very minimal these days but fortunately NASA shows some old launches.  Why does the media not show any information about what Hubble or ISS is doing? They are always showing some kinds of war or politics. Space exploration is at an all time low, and news is very minimal about such. The works for space exploration revolves around the work ethics between man and machines. Without effort from both sides, there never would have been any kinds of missions, or even creation of satellites for us to use to watch TV, internet, and cellphones. We would have never gotten any images either. It’s crazy how much space has done for us.