Category Archives: thought approach

My Research Strategy

1. What is your research question? This should be revised since your inquiry proposal and should begin with HOW or WHY or maybe WHAT?  Be as specific as you can. Underline the key concepts (the most important words or phrases).

How has NASA interacted and gained awareness of the public from the beginning of NASA’s creation (1958), to present day

 

2.   List the key concepts you underlined in #1. After each key concept, put a colon and write the  related words or synonyms. Don’t forget to use OR for related words and concepts.

Write your own answers here:

Awareness: Information or perception or realization or experience or consciousness or recognition

Public: universal or social or popular or communal or mutual or national

Interacted: collaborate or connect or combine or reach out or relate

 

3. Take a look at the concepts and related phrases you listed in Number 2. In the space below, use the asterisk (*) to truncate search terms as appropriate.

Universal Recognition of NASA

Popular Perception through Media of NASA

Social Experience of Space Race

Research Nugget #1

Link 1:

  • Shmoop Editorial Team. (2008, November 11). The 1950s . Retrieved July 3, 2014 from http://www.shmoop.com/1950s/
  • In this article, there is a summation of how the 1950s affected the population. There are analysis’ of diplomacy, politics, economy, society, culture, and most importantly, technology and science.  The most important topic is technology and science as it made the future more innovative.
  • Nugget: “We take computers so much for granted today that it’s hard even to imagine a time when they didn’t exist. The closest thing to a computer in 1950 was the Electrical Numerical Integrator And Calculator or ENIAC. Constructed out of 18,000 vacuum tubes and consuming about 180,000 watts of electrical power, the ENIAC was capable of multiplying numbers rapidly… and not much more.” 

Checking out the statistics of this computer, it was very slow. I can’t believe that a computer use to be a ginormous brick that was capable of practically nothing. Today when we use computers, we play games, surf the internet, send emails, develop applications, and much more. With many programming languages out there today, there was only one at the time of the creation of a computer.

  • Nugget: “Though television had been invented in the 1930s, few Americans had watched a TV show even into the late 1940s. But by the end of the Fifties, TVs were present in 90% of homes and watching television was the favorite leisure activity of nearly half the population.”

Before the creation of the television, families would gather around in the living room around a massive radio. This radio to present sitcoms, shows over the air, and give news to the public. The television revolutionized technology and changed the media forever. Now the public could actually see what was going on, instead of hearing it like they previously could.

Link 2:

  • Oxford, T. (2009, August 5). 5 Technologies to thank the 1950s For . . Retrieved July 1, 2014, from http://www.techradar.com/news/world-of-tech/5-technologies-to-thank-the-1950s-for-623013
  • The middle of the 20th century was one of the most technologically advanced and innovative era. This time period defined how technologically would change over the years. Microchips and stored computers were two innovative technological advancements of the time that lead to inventions such as the smart phones, laptops, and desktops that today are slowly growing out.
  • Nugget: “Looking a lot like the slightly dishevelled uncle that gets drunk at family parties, the first microchip bears little resemblance to its modern equivalent. Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments and Robert Noyce of the Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation (he also co-founded Intel) are credited as being co-founders of the first integrated circuit, in spite of the fact that their creations were six months apart.

    Where Jack Kilby managed to develop the first working model in 1958, Robert Noyce’s version had some necessary improvements – such as the use of silicon instead of germanium and interconnecting the components efficiently. The first commercially viable microchips were released by the Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation in 1961 and were about the size of your baby finger.

    They consisted of one transistor, three resistors and one capacitor, a far cry from the tiny chip of today that can hold 125 million transistors.”

The microchip is a tiny wafer of semiconducting material used to make an integrated circuit. A microchip is a semiconductor integrated circuit. The function depends on what it is designed to do. It could be a micro processor, memory chip, or digital tuner. It could be used in your wristwatch, microwave oven, cell phone, garage door opener, the space shuttle, or almost anything. When it was first created, it was used for small purposes. Today, they’re implanted in animals, computers, calculators, laptops, and even more. 

  • Nugget: While these weren’t very good, they did kick-start development. It was Kapany who coined the term fibre optics in 1956 but it was van Heel who discovered that, by covering the bare fibre/glass/plastic with a transparent cladding, contamination and crosstalk were greatly reduced.

    Then, in the late 1950s, Lawrence Curtiss improved on this even further by introducing glass clad fibres. The invention of the laser in 1960 heralded steady advancement in fibre optic communications, with the semiconductor laser, developed in 1962, still being the most widely used today.

Everyone today knows about Verizon Fiber Optics, a high speed network for television, internet, and phone services. The first design for Fiber Optics was a failure, as it was very slow and a problem, as it was first developed in the 1840s. After a hundred years, there was a massive development. Imaging bundles were just a start, and now today there’s more to just imaging. Link 3:

  • Oxford, T. (2009, November 19). 6 technologies to thank the 1960s for. TechRadar. Retrieved July 2, 2014, from http://www.techradar.com/news/world-of-tech/6-technologies-to-thank-the-1960s-for-650980
  • The 1960s built upon the decade before. The first video game console, the mouse for a computer, light emitting diodes, and more. As the decades go on, the technology significantly increases as well. The implentation of UNIX definitely send a huge message across the technological world.
  • Nugget: “In 1969 a group of employees from AT&T at Bell Labs created one of the most popular and powerful operating systems of the age, UNIX. Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, Brian Kernighan, Douglas Mcllroy and Joe Ossana were among the crew who sat down to develop UNIX on the PDP-7. The name was derived from MULTICS, a project run in conjunction with several large companies including Bell Labs that failed to deliver on expectations.”

Unix is a multitaskingmultiuser computer operating system that exists in many variants. The OS provides a set of simple tools that each perform a limited, well-defined function, with a unified filesystem as the main method of communication. For programmers, this was a huge advancement because UNIX exploded across computers and many programmers took advantage and made many programs to innovate newer languages. 

  • Nugget: “While not technically the man who invented RAM, Robert Dennard was the man who redesigned and modified it to create Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM). His insights into how RAM could function more efficiently over a smaller space mean that computers got more memory for less cost and, frankly, took up less space.” 

Random Access Memory (RAM) is a type of computer memory that can be accessed randomly; that is any byte of memory can be accessed without touching the preceding bytes. RAM is the most common type of memory found in computers and other devices, such as printers. There are two kinds of RAM: Dynamic Random Access Memory, and Static Random Access Memory. A type of physical memory used in most personal computers. The term dynamic indicates that the memory must be constantly refreshed, or reenergized or it will lose its contents. SRAM is a type of memory that is faster and more reliable than the more common DRAM. The term statis is derived from the fact that it doesn’t need to be refreshed like a dynamic RAM.

Synthesis: All of these nuggets all relate to each other, and these articles as well. Technology doesn’t just refer to computers or any kind of machines. Technology was the invention of the wheel, the axel, the discovery of an atom. But these articles all show a timeline of how such small inventions led to massive explorations in the field. One small chip located in a spaceshuttle requires a lot of programming, which started with UNIX. All of these innovations are connected, and are constantly improving today.

AUGMENTING HUMAN INTELLECT: A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

This is an initial summary report of a project taking a new and systematic approach to improving the intellectual effectiveness of the individual human being. It’s more of a detailed conceptual framework that explores the nature of the system composed of the individual and the tools, concepts, and methods that match his basic capabilities to his problems. One of the tools that shows the greatest immediate promise is the computer, when it can be harnessed for direct on-line assistance, integrated with new concepts and methods. These are just a few words of summary that can be gathered from this excerpt. But, there was one nugget that really stood out to me : 

Our culture has evolved means for us to organize the little things we can do with our basic capabilities so that we can derive comprehension from truly complex situations, and accomplish the processes of deriving and implementing problem solutions. The ways in which human capabilities are thus extended are here called augmentation means, and we define four basic classes of them:

  • “Artifacts–physical objects designed to provide for human comfort, for the manipulation of things or materials, and for the manipulation of symbols.

  • Language–the way in which the individual parcels out the picture of his world into the concepts that his mind uses to model that world, and the symbols that he attaches to those concepts and uses in consciously manipulating the concepts (“thinking”).

  • Methodology–the methods, procedures, strategies, etc., with which an individual organizes his goal-centered (problem-solving) activity.

  • Training–the conditioning needed by the human being to bring his skills in using Means 1, 2, and 3 to the point where they are operationally effective.”

In this excerpt by Douglas C. Engelbart, this really stood out because it really represents us humans today. Artifacts are so important today, whether it’s a calculator, laptop, or television to watch anything we want to.

Then the way that we read, see, and understand such artifacts and what is projected through them will define how we think. If there is a problem and we need it to be solved, we take the artifact, use the language necessary to solve the problem, and then use a procedure for the solution.

Computer Malfunction

A language doesn’t mean Arabic, Hindi, English, Chinese, or a spoken language. It could mean a computer language or the way we think and process.

C Program

 

Finally to put all three together, we must train to receive the most accurate and precise results. “Practice makes perfect” is what I am sure that every parent told and still tell their kids.

Violin

Reflective Writing for Internet Adventure

Licklider brought up a very good point. It is more clearer where technology needs to go. The essay that Licklider is old, so it is kind of outdated. When I mean outdated I mean that either the goals have been reached, or it is really close. This internet adventure made me see how everything is connected, how topics are related and how the computer makes it easier to relate to similar topics. It is like a family tree, or chronological order. You start with a idea or head, and it branches downwards. But also ideas can be interchangeable. All ideas are connected.

treestandard2

A Mutual Benefit Between Man and Machine

In the world today, technological advancement is rapidly growing, from the eradication of cell-phones to the advancement of smart phones, the unnecessary heavy desktop computers for laptops and now iPads and all kinds of tablets, registers at malls to becoming self checkout counters, and many more. These are only a few examples that can be given.

In J.C.R, Licklider’s essay, I found a particular nugget really interesting to me:

Throughout the period I examined, in short, my “thinking” time was devoted mainly to activities that were essentially clerical or mechanical: searching, calculating, plotting, transforming, determining the logical or dynamic consequences of a set of assumptions or hypotheses, preparing the way for a decision or an insight. Moreover, my choices of what to attempt and what not to attempt were determined to an embarrassingly great extent by considerations of clerical feasibility, not intellectual capability.

The main suggestion conveyed by the findings just described is that the operations that fill most of the time allegedly devoted to technical thinking are operations that can be performed more effectively by machines than by men. Severe problems are posed by the fact that these operations have to be performed upon diverse variables and in unforeseen and continually changing sequences. If those problems can be solved in such a way as to create a symbiotic relation between a man and a fast information-retrieval and data-processing machine, however, it seems evident that the cooperative interaction would greatly improve the thinking process.”

This piece really stood out to me for a specific reason, and that’s because it seems that what Licklider is saying is that we can limit thinking time and improve efficiency by using mankind’s flexibility and a computers accuracy. When a man works with a machine, advancement of society would become the biggest benefactor.

In the world today, one can argue that the rise of technology is causing some sort of problems with mankind. Man vs. technology refers to the consequences that have been brought out as a result of man’s inventions on technological knowledge. One example of a conflict between man and technology is the way man invents an item that later come to destroy him. This can be shown in today’s world is through unemployment. Only a few years ago did we have cashiers regularly checking out customers. Then someone decided it was a fabulous idea to develop self-checkout counters. When I first saw these self-checkout counters, I thought it was a horrendous idea. Who would want to develop a machine that cuts jobs? Finally a bell rang…the answer came to mind and it was businesses, Big corporations would rather save money in the long run by cutting jobs and using machines to save costs. In this case, man is not working with machines, rather it’s a survival of the fittest. These machines can get really annoying however

Self Checkout Counter

Self Checkout Counter 2

Something that has benefited from the cooperation of mankind and technology is what I believe is cell phones. In the world today, communication has never been more important. Whether it’s communicating with coworkers, flirting with ladies, planning events, playing games when boredom arises, or even setting an alarm, a cellphone has it all.  I remember when a phone once had a game called “Snake”, a simple game that would suck all your time and energy until you snake ate all the dots and you got the highest score you could achieve.

SNake

Technology Vs. Papers

Today, cellphones are more interactive. With more technological advancements, these new cellphones lost their names, and now call themselves Smartphone. Do you need a calculator, a calendar, a high-tech device to make you look fancy, a working device for your company, group applications to mass message many people? Look no more, today you have iPhones, GalaxyS5s, HTC, Nokia Lumia, and everything else that myself, and the world keep forgetting due to the ample amount of technology.

The only downside is that sometimes the people who put together these phones can’t afford it….quite the life right?

Phone Charger Length and Third World Problems

Thinking Process: How Browser History Can Show a Trail of Thoughts

Screen Shot for Nugget 1

When doing research, I never thought about checking my browser history to see how I go about answering the topic at hand. After I wrote a response about the nugget I chose from Vannuver’s essay, I checked my browser history to see how my thinking process was. My thought process seems to be somewhat vivid, and the way I think it seems that I need visuals no matter what the circumstance is. When I research, I find out that I also like to add some sort of comedic value to any kind of post, whether it’s a blunt joke, or somewhat satirical.

If I were to compare my thinking process for nugget one in comparison to my first blog post, I would continue to say that it is accurate. I think about the past and future and how what I read can affect me personally, It makes me think about how I can be affected whether negative or positive and no matter how negative or positive the situation may be, I add comedic value regardless. Life is too short to be upset, so I like to cheer myself up no matter how things end up.