Henry Brue’re does an excellent job at depicting the unemployment issues we deal with in America. This article was published in 1915 by the American Academy of Political and Social Science, which by itself is an interesting time in America. One of this articles great strengths is the year it was written and how relevant it is in the present. A key area of bias in this article is the time period; in the beginning of this article the author claims that “It is fallacious, of course, to assume that unemployment conditions in 1914-1915 were solely due to the European war.” I give this source a grade of B because of the war bias, otherwise, even without getting into racial issues, this article still explains the attitudes of politics and how they have been affecting and shaping our country. Henry Brue’re lived from 1882-1958; he was an advisor to President Franklin D. Roosevelt. He studied at Columbia University, Cornell University and the University of Chicago. He also directed Harriman’s Union Pacific Railroad and was the Treasurer of Edward A. Filene’s Twentieth-Century Fund.
The Transition to Capitalism In Rural America by Allan Kulikoff is an interesting read. Overall I would give it a B, with most of its praises being generated from a topic I haven’t really considered. It presents two opposing sides of an argument upholding different ideals. One being focused more on the importance of economics and the other being focused on the importance of the workers who drive the marketplace. This article goes into great detail about the opposing sides and does a great job of not being biased to either of them. It’s weakness is that there could be a potential 3rd party in this article that goes unheard because of the two opposing sides who possibly struggle the most. Allan Kulikoff is a professor at Northern Illinois University who’s more famous work is “Tobacco and Slaves”.
Martin Gilens is the only author I have two different sources from. I’m attempting to not use my like for his stance on politics to influence my research of his own work so I’ve condensed his work to two works. This particular source is titled: “Race and Poverty In America: Public Misperceptions and the American News Media”. This article presents a strong case based on the factual statistics Martin Gilens uses to back up his statements; which is another reason I like his work. I give it a grade of A; I see biases leaning toward the minority population that seems to go silent when Americans are asked what they all value the most. I do not, however, view its biases as a hindrance or a negative.
One source I’ve chosen doesn’t have an author per say, but rather they chose to credit “ushistory.org” with attaining the resources. This website was created by the Independence Hall Association, a nonprofit in Philadelphia, PA founded in 1942. Ushistory.org has been online since July 4, 1995. They quote Aristotle with “human societies should be governed by ethical principle found in nature”, along with their definition of early American democracy. I will say I’m not as fond of this source as I am with others because they didn’t credit any people with coming up with the information. I give it an overall C because I don’t truly understand how they have come to the information they’ve published. It doesn’t seem to be biased in any ways because it doesn’t agree or disagree with Aristotle.
Martin Gilens, a current Princeton University Political Science professor wrote “Descritpitive Representation, Money, and Political Inequality in the United State. I’m using this reference because it builds on the inequality that many people in America feel. Not only does Professor Gilens point out something that most Americans I have spoken with would agree to, we don’t have much say so when it comes to policy. He states in the article that our elected officials, once in office, begin to focus on their biggest donation contributors rather than the people who elected them. Reading this article has been extremely resourceful and I give it A+. In a scholarly way he does what the poor often are accused of “complaining” about.
“A Win-Win Game” by Robert L. Bartley is an article that supports the stigma of the elites destroying America slowly by creating a disengaged society which solely relies on the elected officials. He doesn’t go so far as to say we are unable to get out of this type of government. Instead he provides a solution; he points our interconnection with the rest of the world ans suggests that we get with the program of having positive international relationships with other countries. Robert Le. Barley lived until he was 66 years old dying of cancer complications (www.nytimes.com). He was the lead editor of The Wall Street Journal for 30 years
This source is “The Nature and Various Forms of Democracy” by Gerhard Leibholz (1901-1982), a legal scholar who migrated from Germany to England during the Nazi dictatorship, in the year 1938. I chose this article as an introduction to the research of early democracy and its effects of pre-modern society. Gerhard Leibholz articulates the different forms of democracy while bouncing the similarities to other forms of governments in other countries well. Some limitations to this source are: it is an old source and is not current in how our democracy has been shaped by our present-day culture and choices, democracy in 1938 according to him was still more innocent in the sense that some politicians were willing to accept the community of people instead of their own interests. One of his core strengths is his ability to make connections across different forms of governments and how they eventually lead to democracy over time, or how democracy could lead to different governments over time with relations to how community, individuals, and cultures can be shaped based on certain large-scaled decisions. Gerhard Leibholz was a legal scholar lived from 1901-1982, he migrated to England from Germany during Nazi dictatorship.
The “Political Democracy and the Size Distribution of Income” by Kenneth A. Bollen of the University of North Carolina, and Robert W. Jackman of Michigan State University with publishing by the American Sociological Association reviews and analyses theoretical arguments that link political democracy with economic inequality. The source’s limitations are genuinely light with both writers being college educated sociologists researching data well into their field of study. Their strength is the process they use to gather, quantify, and correlate their data, when applicable. Kenneth and Robert both understand that it’s difficult to quantify categorical information based on different feelings throughout different cultural norms and do not attempt to do so. I would say that this gives them a largely unbiased approach to the data, which unfortunately doesn’t help or hinder my own research, it only suggests that I dig deeper. I would give this source an A in terms of its overall value as an article open to the public for research purposes. I gives insight on American government as well as past foreign policies and how other countries have been affected by democracy.
The Democracy Dilemma. Casey Patterson
Democracy as it stands in America is imperfect, like every other country’s government and systems, ours has flaws as well. Most of the general public are people we know, people we grew up with, went to school with, played and fought with, and ultimately learned very valuable life lessons with. Those same people are some of the most “unique” people we know; everyone has someone in their family or a friend who, mentally, we have questioned at some point or another. If you can’t think of anyone it’s probably you, but that’s alright because you’re unique.
All of these dealings we have with average, everyday people can bring us to a few personal conclusions about society and our country because, ultimately, we make up society and we make up the country. Unfortunately a large percentage of our country’s population could have been educated more efficiently but instead they went untouched. My grandmother owns a house, a few vehicles, and land, but the highest form of education she received was up until the 8th grade. She, to me, is the perfect example of the population of our country because she grew up in a time where education didn’t mean “go to school”, education meant that if you don’t want to live on the street you better find a job and work for someone.
There are many people in our society with that mindset and there are many parents still teaching that to their children. Who’s to blame, the parents for not teaching their kids, or the kids for being “lazy”, or the government for not taking care of the citizens? This to me answers the first question about the relationship between the American public and our elected officials. It seems that no one really knows what’s going on and everyone is pointing fingers with no resolutions. This is problematic because of how important our relationship is to the government and the political process. I think we forget, but every elected official used to be an average everyday American citizen.
What’s important to first figure out is what do we as individuals value, also what does our country as a whole stand for and promise to uphold. If we understand those two things then we will be able to elect the appropriate officials who, despite their personality, allow their character to uphold what’s important. If we cannot find someone who will stand for what we all collectively agree on, we should hold ourselves to the standard and be the quality leader who sets the standard for others to follow, and, once they are ready, become leaders as well. In short,what’s important is setting the standard and keeping the standard.