APA End Citation Models

APA Overview APA In-Text Citations APA Quoting and Paraphrasing APA End Citation Models
In APA, the citation list at the end of your paper or presentation is called a References section. Only sources that are actually referred to/cited in your work should be included in this list. In some cases, an instructor might require a Bibliography; in this type of list, you include any sources you read or consulted in building your knowledge on a topic, whether or not you cite them in your essay. Items in a Bibliography are still cited according to the same format guidelines as the References section.
Note: This page reflects the latest version of the APA Publication Manual (APA 7), which released in October 2019.
For the drop-down menus below, click on the plus (+) sign to open the example; click on the arrow to obtain a link for each specific item that you can copy or email to yourself.

Books

Author Last name, First initial. (Year). Title of book in italics and sentence case. Publisher.

Kemp, M. (2000). Visualizations: the nature book of art and science. University of California Press.

First author Last name, First initial & second author Last name, First initial. (Year). Title of book in italics and sentence case. Publisher.

Alward, E. & Alward, J. (1997). Punctuation plain & simple. Barnes & Noble Press.

If no primary author can be determined, editors and translators are required.

Editor Last name, First initial. (Ed.) (Year). Title of book in italics and sentence case. Publisher.

Ford, M. (Ed.) (2006). The changing world of work. Pearson.

Chapter author Last name, First initial. (Year). Title of chapter in sentence case. In Editor first initial, Last name (Ed.), Title of book in italics and sentence case (page numbers). Publisher.

McCarty, W. (2012). The PhD in digital humanities. In B. Hirsch (Ed.), Digital humanities pedagogy: Practices, principles, and politics (pp. 33-46). Open Book Publishers.

If there are no page numbers, just include the title of the chapter. If there is information about the edition or volume number, place this information in parentheses following the title, with the period after the parentheses: (Rev. ed) or (Vol. 2, pp. 125-130). If a reference has a very large editorial board, list the name of the lead editor, followed by et al. in italics.
If a book has multiple editions, your References section should include the edition that you are referring to in your own work. 

Author or Editor Last name, First initial. (Year). Title of book in italics and sentence case. (edition number). Publisher.

Anderson, J. (2006). Public policymaking (6th ed.). Houghton Mifflin.

If the book was read as a digital edition (Google Books, Project Gutenberg, etc.) or on an e-reader (Kindle, etc.), the name of the digital edition or version is not needed, but do include the online location from which it was retrieved OR the doi.

Author Last name, First initial. (Year). Title of book in italics and sentence case. Publisher. URL

Hubbard, E. (1996). John Jacob Astor. Project Gutenberg. http://www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/412/pg412.txt

If your reference work is in print, treat it as an edited print book:

Author Last name, First initial. (Ed.). (Year). Title of book in italics and sentence case. Publisher.

Scott, J. (Ed.). (2014). A dictionary of sociology. Oxford University Press.

If the reference work was found online, it is preferred that you use an archived or permanent link if possible so that your readers can access the version you used. In this case, no retrieval date is required:

Author last name, First initial. (Year of original publication). Title of entry in sentence case. In Editor First Initial, Last Name (Ed.), Title of publication in italics and sentence case (Year of most recent edition ed.). Publisher. URL

Thomas, N. (1997). Mental imagery. In E. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Fall 2014 ed.). Stanford University. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/mental-imagery/

If your online source is regularly updated and no archived versions are available, use “n.d.” as the year of publication and include a retrieval date:

Author Last name, First initial. (n.d.). Title of entry in sentence case. In Title of publication in italics and sentence case. Retrieved Date of Retrieval, from URL

Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Immaterial. In Mirriam-Webster.com dictionary. Retrieved February 3, 2020, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/immaterial

Periodicals

Include the DOI as a URL beginning with “https://doi.org/xxxx”. If there is no DOI, you can use a stable URL if provided (NOTE: only use the URL if it takes you to the full text of the article without needing to log in to an account). Do not include the name of the database, unless the article is exclusively found there.

Author Last name, First initial. (Year). Title of article in sentence case. Title of Periodical in Italics and Title Case, volume number (issue number), page numbers. DOI

Beckes, L., & Coan, J.A. (2013). Voodoo versus me—you correlations in relationship neuroscience. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 30 (2), 189-197. https://doi.org/10.1177/0265407512454768

Author Last name, First initial. (Year, Month). Title of article in sentence case. Title of Periodical in Italics and Title Case, volume number (issue number), page numbers. URL

Yong, E. (2020, February). The new coronavirus is a truly modern epidemic. The Atlantic. https://www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2020/02/coronavirus-very-2020-epidemic/605941/

Print article. (If the newspaper article is longer than one page, write pp. instead of p.)

Author Last name, First initial. (Year, Month and Day). Title of article in sentence case. Title of Newspaper in Italics and Title Case, page number(s).

Gale, A., Erdbrink, T. (2015, October 10). Isis make gains in Syria territory bombed by Russia. The New York Times, p. A11.

If the article was found online, provide the URL for the newspaper’s homepage.

Author Last name, First initial. (Year, Month Day). Title of article in sentence case. Title of Newspaper in Italics and Title Case. URL

Johnson, C. (2020, February 3). First peanut allergy drug approved by FDA. The Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/health/2020/01/31/first-peanut-allergy-drug-approved-by-fda/

If the newspaper article does not identify an author, start with the title of the article.

Title of article in sentence case. (Year, Month Day). Title of Newspaper in Italics and Title Case. URL

Sexual assault involving multiple suspects reported at UVa. (2020, February 3). The Richmond Times Dispatch. https://www.richmond.com/news/local/crime/sexual-assault-involving-multiple-suspects-reported-at-uva/article_2dba229d-6c7d-57c6-9667-39df065f2fbf

Author Last name, First initial or Username. (Year, Month Day). Title of post in sentence case. Title of Periodical in Italics and Title Case. URL

Gunter, J. (2019, September 9). Why does the Dept. of OB/GYN at the University of Utah offer a premarital exam for women? Dr. Jen Gunter. https://drjengunter.com/2019/09/09/why-does-the-dept-of-ob-gyn-at-the-university-of-utah-offer-a-premarital-exam-for-women/

The format for a review should match the source in which it appears, with a description of the content being reviewed in square brackets. Include the role of any content creators except the authors of books.
Film Review published in an online newspaper:

Reviewer Last name, First initial. (Year, Month Day). Title of review in sentence case [Review of the film Title of movie in italics and sentence case, by creator First initial, Last name, function]. Title of Publication in Italics and Title Case. URL

Loughrey, C. (2020, January 16). Just Mercy review: Death row drama is refined, sober filmmaking [Review of the film Just mercy, by D. Cretton, Dir.]. Independent. https://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/films/reviews/just-mercy-review-michael-b-jordan-jamie-foxx-cast-director-death-row-a9285701.html

Book review published in a journal:

Reviewer Last name, First initial. (Year). Title of review in sentence case [Review of the book Title of book in italics and sentence case, book author or editor First initial, Last name]. Title of Publication in Italics and Title Case, volume, pages. DOI or URL

Millichap, J. (2011). Book review: Focus on sleep medicine: a self-assessment. [Review of the book Focus on sleep medicine: a self-assessment, T. Lee-Chiong, ed.]. Neurology, 76(9), e39. https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0b013e31820e7c1f

Audio, Video, and Images

In general, you do not need to indicate the method you used to listen to an album unless you used format-specific content, such as a special track or feature on a CD, or content notes included with a streaming service.  In that case, include that information in the square brackets following “Album.”

Artist Last name, First initial. (Copyright Year). Title of album in italics and sentence case [Album]. Label.

Radiohead. (1997). OK computer [Album]. Capitol Records.

A specific song:

Artist Last name, First initial. (Copyright Year). Title of audio track. [Song.] On Title of album in italics and sentence case. Label.

Joel, B. (1983). Uptown girl [Song]. On An innocent man. Columbia Records.

For classical works, provide the composer as author and add the performer in square brackets following the title. End the citation with the date of original composition in parentheses.

Artist Last name, First initial. (Copyright Year). Title of album in italics and sentence case [Album recorded by Performing Group or Artist]. Label. (Original work published Year)

Brahms, J. (2006). Ein deutsches requiem. [Album recorded by the Atlanta Symphony Orchestra and Chorus.]. Telarc. (Original work published 1868)

Last name, First initial (Role). (Years of production). Name of podcast in italics and sentence case [Audio podcast]. Publisher. URL

Thorn, J. (Host). (2012-present). Bullseye with Jesse Thorn [Audio podcast]. NPR. https://www.npr.org/podcasts/510309/bullseye 

Use the director as the author unless no director is available; in that case, use someone in a similar role, such as a producer, with a description of that role in parentheses. While it is not necessary to describe how you watched the film (streaming service, DVD, in a theater, etc.), if additional description is needed, such as a commentary track on a DVD that you used, this description can be added inside the square brackets after Film. 

Last name, First initial (Director). (Year). Title of motion picture in italics and sentence case [Film]. Studio. URL

Sonnenfeld, B. (Director). (1997). Men in black. [Film]. Columbia Pictures.

Writer Last name, First initial (Writer), & Director Last name, First initial (Director). (Year, Month Day of airing). Episode title (Season number, Episode number) [Television series episode]. In Executive producer First initial, Last Name (Executive producer), Title of series in italics and sentence case. Production company; Television network.

Taylor, V. (Writer), & Petrarca, D. (Director). (2012, April 22). Garden of bones (Season 2, Episode 4) [Television series episode]. In Benioff, D. & Weiss, D.B. (Executive producers), Game of Thrones. HBO; HBO.

Note that the uploader of the video is credited as the author for citation purposes, even if someone else created the video. If needed, the creator name can be discussed in the narrative text.

Uploader Last name, First initial or Username. (Year, Month Day). Title of video in italics and sentence case [Video]. Platform. URL

LastWeekTonight. (2014, September 7). Student debt: last week tonight with John Oliver (HBO) [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/P8pjd1QEA0c

Author Last name, First initial or Username. (Year, Month Day). Title of post or first twenty words of comment in sentence case [Comment on the video “Title of video being commented on in sentence case”]. Title of Site in Italics and Title Case. URL

Borges, J. (2020, February 9). This TED is a very good example what is real important to the world rather than other people problems. [Comment on the video “What if the poor were part of city planning?”]. TED. https://www.ted.com/talks/smruti_jukur_johari_what_if_the_poor_were_part_of_city_planning/discussion

Note that to reproduce visual texts, permission and/or copyright attribution may be required in addition to the reference.
Artwork in a museum or on a museum website: 

Author Last name, First initial. (Year). Title of material in italics and sentence case. [Description of material]. Name of Museum, Location.

Digital Image from an online source: 

Author Last name, First initial or Screen name. (Year). Title of image in italics and sentence case [Description of material]. Name of source. URL

Turner, L. (2008). Pineapple [Photograph]. Flickr. https://flic.kr/p/4WGLKC

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (2016). Hubble captures vivid auroras in Jupiter’s atmosphere [Photograph]. NASA Image and Video Library. https://images.nasa.gov/details-hubble-captures-vivid-auroras-in-jupiters-atmosphere_28000029525_o

Infographic: 

Author Last name, First initial. (Year). Title of infographic in italics and sentence case. [Infographic]. Publisher. URL

American Alliance of Museums (2018). Museums as economic engines. https://www.aam-us.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/1.0-EE-National.pdf 

Map:
For maps that are created on demand, such as in software programs, do not include a title. Instead, describe the map in square brackets and include a retrieval date. If the group author and publisher are the same, omit the publisher. 

Author last name, First initial or Group name. (Year). Title of map in italics and sentence case [Map]. Publisher.

United States Geological Survey. (1996). Coalfields of the Coterminous United States [Resource map]. http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1996/of96-092/

Google. (n.d.). [Google maps directions for driving from Richmond, VA to Washington, D.C.]. Retrieved February 9, 2020, from https://www.google.com/maps/dir/Richmond,+Virginia/Washington+D.C.,+DC/@38.2165952,-78.3826538,8z/data=!3m1!4b1!4m13!4m12!1m5!1m1!1s0x89b111095799c9ed:0xbfd83e6de2423cc5!2m2!1d-77.4360481!2d37.5407246!1m5!1m1!1s0x89b7c6de5af6e45b:0xc2524522d4885d2a!2m2!1d-77.0368707!2d38.9071923

If your lecture has no title, include a phrase summarizing what the content was about in the description of content. If your lecture has a title, include only the format of content in the description (i.e. PowerPoint slides, Lecture notes, etc.) If your slides or lecture notes come from a classroom website or course management platform such as Blackboard, provide the name of the site and either the direct URL for live web content or the login page URL for gated sites like Blackboard.
Lecture notes:

Author Last name, First initial. (Year, Month Day). Title of lecture in italics and sentence case. [Lecture notes.] Organization or Sponsor. URL

Totah, F. (2020, February 11). Addressing invisible and emotional labor in the classroom and beyond. [Lecture notes.] Center for Teaching and Learning Excellence, Virginia Commonwealth University.

Slideshows:

Author Last name, First initial. (Year, Month Day). Title of lecture in italics and sentence case. [Description of content.]  Publisher or Platform. URL

Marx, A. (2018, October 26). Fallacies of ethical reasoning [PDF]. Blackboard. http://blackboard.vcu.edu

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2004, June 29). Guidance for the selection and use of personal protective equipment (PPE) in healthcare settings. [PowerPoint slides.] https://www.cdc.gov/HAI/prevent/ppe.html

Social Media and Online-only Formats

Author Last name, First initial or Display name [@username]. (Year, Month Day). First 20 words of tweet in italics and sentence case [Tweet]. Twitter. URL

Mattingly, J. [@jmattingly306]. (2020, February 7). Also new: Virginians have more than $40 billion in student loan debt. Bills passed by the House and Senate hope [Thumbnail with link attached] [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/jmattingly306/status/1225909431013138434 

Author Last name, First initial, Group name, or Display name [@username]. (Year, Month Day). First 20 words of post in italics and sentence case [Photographs]. Instagram. URL

Stewart, P. [@sirpatstew]. (2020, January 15). Friends reunion. #StarTrekPicard [Photograph]. Instagram. https://www.instagram.com/p/B7W4lWPBZ4s/

Note that these formats can be used for other similar social media services, such as Tumblr, LinkedIn, etc. When photos, videos, and other multimedia content is added, describe that content in square brackets.
Facebook post:

Author Last name, First initial. (Year, Month Day). First 20 words of post in italics and sentence case [Description of included content] [Status update]. Facebook. URL

Redditte, K. (2020, January 30). AVAILABLE NOW: Legendary journalist Gwen Ifill is now memorialized on a new U.S. Postal Service Forever stamp [Thumbnail with link attached] [Status update]. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/KarlaRedditteNBC12/posts/2703149229732098?__xts__[0]=68.ARCwE_x-_d4t6b2wZDHOsWcygklYdLD5wLSfFvfABxtWBUeb16oUF_qGD4K2TX4wGVpGMV8BomEF-p1D_1jIMZRBpTrubU_TPY5tMP6847r0nzsUOH_Jrm-J0fsP9gIdjXygbFO1A9S7CHAdxPo6qd-YtEMuFQs5C_U5SnYwwtjKZ9L6oq8UdZuYa5BkyGlMKAAOsCJY2DViwHkArJXsg5RGTqRPiMVddjj3K4ZFDDduVreOWJlckwMdv2ubFNLVamZPKorK03ms6gvLW76HGc4Gt68rFx1Reppi1jPuuYuec6TCbGh8P6aiSh1nrlSXXEIX1bik125N2b6qsJAx76LetQ

Facebook page:
For social media pages that are continually being updated, use “n.d.” in the place of the date. Use a title page description such as Home or Timeline to describe the page. 

Author Last name, First initial or Group Name. (n.d.) Title of page in italics and sentence case [Facebook page]. Retrieved Year, Month Day, from URL

Department of Focused Inquiry, VCU. (n.d.). Timeline. [Facebook page]. Retrieved November 18, 2016, from https://www.facebook.com/FocusedInquiryVCU/

Author Last name, First initial or Display name [username]. (Year, Month Day). Title of post or first 20 words of post in italics and sentence case [Online forum post]. Platform. URL

Sombra-hax [u/Sombra-hax]. (2020, February 8). Autism friendly places in RVA. [Online forum post]. Reddit. https://www.reddit.com/r/rva/comments/f0fwr8/autism_friendly_places_in_rva/

Author Last name, First initial or Username. (Year, Month Day). Title of post or first twenty words of comment in sentence case [Comment on the article “Title of article being commented on in sentence case”]. Title of Site in Italics and Title Case. URL

Floris, P. (n.d.). Dear Angry Chef. Thank you for the fantastic article on “Dirt” Your article is a real contribution to the discussion [Comment on article “Daily Bread”]. The Angry Chef. https://angry-chef.com/blog/daily-bread

Additional Sources

For most online content, writers should cite the type of content: newspaper, magazine, journal, conference proceedings, etc. all of which have the option to add a URL (see the relevant model elsewhere on this page). Use this webpage category only if there is no other appropriate reference category for the type of online source and the work does not belong to any parent publication or format such as a journal, conference, blog, etc.
If you use multiple pages from a single website, make a reference entry for each page. Webpages may have single authors who may use a username, or may have a group author.  If the author and the website name are the same, omit the site name from your citation.

Author Last name, First initial, Username, or Group name. (Year, Month Day). Title of webpage in italics and sentence case. Website name. URL

American Cancer Society. (2016, September 9). Benefits of quitting smoking over time. http://www.cancer.org/healthy/stayawayfromtobacco/benefits-of-quitting-smoking-over-time  

Webpage with no dates:

Author Last name, First initial or Username. (n.d.). Title of webpage in italics and sentence case. Website name. URL

The W. K. Kellogg Foundation. (n.d.). Our history. Healing Histories. http://www.healinghistories.org/#history/0/0

Dissertation or thesis from a database

Author Last Name, First Initial. (Year). Title of dissertation or thesis in italics and sentence case (publication number) [doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis, Institution name]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.

Ward, M. (2009). Learning to value all beings: A synthesis of humane education disciplines. (UMI No.1470315) [Doctoral dissertation]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.

Dissertation or thesis published online (not from a database)

Author Last Name, First Initial. (Year). Title of dissertation or thesis in italics and sentence case [doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis, institution name]. Name of website/source. URL

Boucicaut, T. (2016). Courageous solstice: Reconstructing fairy tales for a black youth aesthetic. [Master’s thesis, Virginia Commonwealth University]. VCU Scholars Compass. https://scholarscompass.vcu.edu/etd/4172/

Presenter Last Name, First initial (Year, Month Day). Title of poster or paper in italics and sentence case. [Paper or Poster presentation]. Name of conference or Organization, City, State, Country.

Mattison, L. & Tait-Ripperdan, R (2019, March 28). Revisioning historical primary sources in the literature classroom. [Paper presentation]. College English Association, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA.

If the report has individual authors:

Author last name, First initial. (Year, Month Day). Title of report in italics and sentence case. (Report or publication number if available). Publisher or sponsor name. DOI or URL

Jackson, A. (2014 November 24). Report of the office of the city attorney. City of Richmond Office of the City Attorney. http://www.richmondgov.com/CityAttorney/documents/AnnualReports11242014.pdf

If the report has a group author:

Agency or Group name. (Year, Month Day). Title of report in italics and sentence case. (Report or publication number if available). Publisher or sponsor name. DOI or URL

United States Census Bureau. (2015). Health insurance coverage in the United States: 2014 (Report No. P60-253). http://www.census.gov/library/publications/2015/demo/P60-253.html

You do not need to cite common software used in your field of research that is merely mentioned in text but not quoted or paraphrased. Examples might include Microsoft Office, the Adobe creative suite, or social media apps. You should cite anything you have quoted or paraphrased, or any software that your readers are likely to be unfamiliar with. In the square brackets, indicate whether your program is computer software, a mobile app, or another kind of program.

Author Last name, First initial or Name of group. (Year). Title of software in italics and sentence case (Version Number) [Type of software]. Publisher or distributor name. URL

Apple Inc. (2019). iMovie on the Mac. (Version 10.1.14) [Computer software]. Mac App Store. https://apps.apple.com/us/app/imovie/id408981434?mt=12

APA no longer offers a citation style for unpublished personal interviews or unpublished personal emails. These sources should be discussed narratively in the text and need not be cited.
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