MLA End Citation Models

MLA Overview MLA In-Text Citations MLA Quoting and Paraphrasing MLA End Citation Models
In MLA, the citation list at the end of your paper or presentation is called a Works Cited section. Only sources that are actually referred to/cited in your work should be included in this list. In some cases, an instructor might require a Bibliography; in this type of list, you include any sources you read or consulted in building your knowledge on a topic, whether or not you cite them in your essay. Items in a Bibliography are still cited according to the same format guidelines as the Works Cited section.
Note: This page reflects guidelines from the MLA Handbook (8th ed.), published in 2016. An update reflecting the 9th edition (spring 2021 release date) is forthcoming.
For the drop-down menus below, click on the plus (+) sign to open the example; click on the arrow to obtain a link for each specific item that you can copy or email to yourself.

General Guidelines

At a basic level, your end citation should include the following (note the punctuation):
1. Author’s name (Last name, first name for the first author, and then other names in First Last order. It’s only necessary to include up to two names. If there are more than two authors, you can simply use “et al.” after the first one.).
2. Title (in quotation marks for articles, essays, songs, TV episodes, and other parts of a larger item, or in italics if it’s a book, journal, magazine, newspaper, album, TV series, and other larger item).
3. Title (in italics, if the item in 2 above is contained in, or part of, a larger item),
4. Editor(s), translator(s), illustrator(s), performer(s), and other contributors if there are any (often there will not be),
5. Volume, version, or edition (if there’s a volume number, precede with “vol.”),
6. Issue or number (if present, precede with “no.”),
7. Publisher,
8. Publication date,
9. Location or page number(s) and DOI (if available). Include URL for online sources if there is no DOI (don’t use both), unless your professor/teacher tells you otherwise.
MLA now considers the medium and the access date to be optional, but encourages their use to add clarity, as needed. Publisher location isn’t used, unless it’s necessary to identify a specific edition.
When creating your citations, s
imply skip any information that isn’t available
. To find examples of full citations for a specific source type, select the applicable source type from the menus below.
If the work is contained in a larger object—such as a database, Google Books, or a collection of plays—your end citation should include the following:
The basic citation info:
1. Author’s name (Last name, first name for the first author, and then other names in First Last order. It’s only necessary to include up to two names. If there are more than two authors, you can simply use “et al.” after the first one.).
2. Title (in quotation marks for articles, essays, songs, TV episodes, and other parts of a larger item, or in italics if it’s a book, journal, magazine, newspaper, album, TV series, and other larger item).
3. Title (in italics, if the item in 2 above is contained in, or part of, a larger item),
4. Editor(s), translator(s), illustrator(s), performer(s), and other contributors if there are any (often there will not be),
5. Volume, version, or edition (if there’s a volume number, precede with “vol.”),
6. Issue or number (if present, precede with “no.”),
7. Publisher,
8. Publication date,
9. Location or page number(s) and DOI (if available). Include URL for online sources if there is no DOI (don’t use both), unless your professor/teacher tells you otherwise.
AND:
10.
Title of container (in italics),
11.
Contributors related to the container,
12.
Volume, version, or edition,
13.
Issue or number,
14.
Publisher,
15.
Publication date,
16.
Location.
At the end of each citation, if either of these are relevant, add the following:
17.
Access date (for sources accessed online, preceeded with “Accessed” and listed in dd Mon. yyyy format: Accessed 4 Sept. 2016),
18.
Medium (for sources where identifying the medium is necessary to distinguish what the source is, such as a VHS, DVD, or Blu-ray version of a video recording).
MLA now considers the medium and the access date to be optional, but encourages their use to add clarity, as needed. Publisher location isn’t used, unless it’s necessary to identify a specific edition.
When creating your citations, simply skip any information that isn’t available. To find examples of full citations for a specific source type, select the applicable source type from the menus below.

Books

Author Last name, First name. Title of Book in Italics and Title Case. Publisher, Year of Publication.

Armistead, Cal. Being Henry David. Albert Whitman, 2013.

Author Last name, First name, and Author First name Last name. Title of Book in Italics and Title Case. Publisher, Year of Publication.

Stokes, Chris, and Mark Howden. Adapting Agriculture to Climate Change: Preparing Australian Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries for the Future. CSIRO, 2010.

List the second author’s name in First name Last name order.

Author Last name, First name, et al. Title of Book in Italics and Title Case. Publisher, Year of Publication.

Ambrose, Susan A., et al. How Learning Works: Seven Research-Based Principles for Smart Teaching. Jossey-Bass, 2010.

For works in an anthology (a compiled collection of readings), and for any other works with a translator or editor, the editors and/or translators are listed separately from the author of the work, after the title. If no author is available, the editor and/or translator is listed in place of the author at the beginning of the citation.
Example 1 (author & editors present):

Author Last name, First name. “Title of Poem, Story, or Chapter in Title Case, Inside Quotation Marks.” Title of Book in Italics and Title Case, edited by First name Last name, Publisher, Year of Publication, page number(s).

Sanders, William. “When This World Is All on Fire.” Space and Place: Focused Inquiry I & II 2020-2021 edition, edited by Focused Inquiry Textbook Committee, Hayden-Mcneil, 2020, pp. 323-336.

Example 2 (author, editors, and translator present):

Author Last name, First name. “Title of Work in Title Case, Inside Quotation Marks.” Title of Book in Italics and Title Case, translated [or edited] by First name Last name, Publisher, Year of Publication, page numbers.

Rosas de Oquendo, Mateo. “The Mestizo’s Ballade / Romance del Mestizo.” The Oxford Book of Latin American Poetry: A Bilingual Anthology, translated by G. J. Racz, edited by Cecilia Vicuña and Ernesto Livon-Grosman, Oxford UP, 2009, pp. 15-16.

Example 3 (no author present):
Tallett, Frank and D.J.B. Trim, editors. European Warfare, 1350-1750. Cambridge UP, 2010.

Articles

Author Last name, First name. “Title of Article in Title Case, Inside Quotation Marks.” Title of Journal in Italics and Title Case, Volume number, Issue number, Date of Publication, Name of Database in Italics, page number(s), DOI.

Williams, Jennifer D. “Black American Girls in Paris: Sex, Race, and Cosmopolitanism in Andrea Lee’s Sarah Phillips and Shay Youngblood’s Black Girl in Paris.” Contemporary Women’s Writing, vol. 9, no. 1, 2015, pp. 1-19, doi: 10.1093/cww/vpu028.

If the journal article does not have a DOI, and the article was found online, include the URL in place of the DOI.

Author Last name, First name. “Title of Article in Title Case, Inside Quotation Marks.” Title of Magazine in Italics and Title Case, Date of Publication, page number(s), URL. Access date.

Mansky, Jackie. “How One Woman Helped End Lunch Counter Segregation in the Nation’s Capital.” Smithsonian Magazine, 8 June 2016, smithsonianmag.com/history/how-one-woman-helped-end-lunch-counter-segregation-nations-capital-180959345/. Accessed 23 June 2016.

Author Last name, First name. “Title of Article in Title Case, Inside Quotation Marks.” Name of Newspaper in Italics and Title Case, Date of Publication, page number(s).

Kleiner, Sarah. “Jail Discovers Video in Death Probe.” Richmond Times-Dispatch, 3 August 2016, pp. 1+.

If the article was found online, provide the URL and the access date.

Author Last name, First name. “Title of Article in Title Case, Inside Quotation Marks.” Name of Newspaper in Italics and Title Case, Date of Publication, page number(s), URL. Access date.

Kleiner, Sarah. “Jail Discovers Video in Death Probe.” Richmond Times-Dispatch, 3 August 2016, pp. 1+, pressreader.com/usa/richmond-times-dispatch/20160803/textview. Accessed 28 Oct. 2016.

If an article is not printed on consecutive pages, only include the first page number and +.

Author Last name, First name. “Title of Entry in Title Case, Inside Quotation Marks.” Title of Reference Work in Italics and Title Case, edited by First name Last name, Edition or Version, volume number, Publisher, Year of Publication, page numbers.

Meier, Robert F. “Deviant Communities.” Encyclopedia of Social Networks, edited by George A. Barnett, vol. 1, Sage, 2011, pp. 210-212.

If the author is unknown, begin the citation with the title of the article or entry.

“Obsessive Compulsive and Related Disorders.” Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-5, 5th ed., American Psychiatric Association, 2013.

Author Last name, First name. Review of Title of Book in Italics and Title Case, by book Author First name, Last name. Title of Publication in Italics and Title Case, Date of Publication, page number(s), URL if accessed online. Access date if accessed online.

Etzioni, Amitai. Review of Justice: What’s The Right Thing to Do, by Michael J. Sandel, The Hedgehog Review, vol. 12, no. 1, Spring 2010, iasc-culture.org/THR/THR_article_2010_Spring_Etzioni.php. Accessed 28 Oct. 2016.

Reports

Government location, Agency name, Office name(s), listed from largest to smallest. Title of Report in Italics and Title Case. Publisher, Date of Publication, report number, URL if accessed online. Access date if accessed online.

United States, Congress, House, Committee on Science, Space, and Technology. Exploration of the Solar System: From Mercury to Pluto and Beyond. Government Publishing Office, 28 July 2015, 114–34. purl.fdlp.gov/GPO/gpo66938. Accessed 19 Sept. 2016.

Or, if the report was published by the organization that authored the report:

Title of Report in Italics and Title Case. Author/publisher, with offices/organization listed from smallest to largest, Date of Publication, report number, URL if accessed online. Access date if accessed online.

Audit of the Spaceport Command and Control System. Office of Audits, Office of Inspector General, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, United States, 28 March 2016, report no. IG-16-015. oig.nasa.gov/audits/reports/FY16/IG-16-015.pdf. Accessed 23 Oct. 2016.

Country Name, Agency Name, Committee Name(s). Title of Report in Italics and Title Case. Publisher, Date of Publication. Number of Congress, number of session, type and number of report, URL if accessed online. Access date if accessed online.

United States, Congress, House, Committee on Veterans’ Affairs. Toxic Exposure Research Act of 2016. Government Publishing Office, 24 May 2016. 114th Congress, 2nd Session, House Report 114-592. gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CRPT-114hrpt592/pdf/CRPT-114hrpt592-pt1.pdf. Accessed 28 Oct. 2016.

Audio, Video, and Image

Band name, or Artist or Composer Last name, First name. “Song Title in Quotation Marks and Title Case.” Name of Album, Contributor or Performer, Version, Publisher, Date of Release, URL (if applicable). Medium.

Cyrus, Miley. “Bottom of the Ocean.” Breakout, Platinum Edition, Hollywood Records, 2008. CD.

Author Last name, First name. “Title of Podcast.” Title of Website or Database or Media Aggregator in Italics and Title Case, Publisher or Sponsor, Publication or Posting Date, URL if applicable. Access date.

Lublin, Hal, Danielle Radford, and Mike Eagle. “Tights and Fights Ep. 7: An Equal and Opposite Backlash,” Maximum Fun, 15 Sept. 2016, maximumfun.org/tights-and-fights/tights-and-fights-ep-7-equal-and-opposite-backlash. Accessed 15 Dec. 2016.

Title of Film in Italics and Title Case. Directed by First name Last name, performance by Actor First name Last name, Name of Studio, Year. Medium.

Mr. Turner. Directed by Mike Leigh, performances by Timothy Spall, Paul Jesson, and Dorothy Atkinson, Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, 2015. DVD.

“Name of Episode in Title Case, Inside Quotation Marks.” Title of Show in Italics and Title Case, created by (or other contribution type) First name Last name, season #, episode #, Production Company or Broadcaster, Date of Broadcast. Medium (if not watched on broadcast or cable TV).

“Strange Love.” True Blood, created by Alan Ball, season 1, episode 1, Your Face Goes Here Entertainment and HBO, 7 Sept. 2008. DVD.

Creator or Subject Last name, First name or Screen name. “Title of Video in Title Case, Inside Quotation Marks.” Title of Website in Italics and Title Case, uploaded by Screen name or First name Last name (if applicable), Date of Publication, URL. Access date.

Yellow Brick Cinema. “Study Music Alpha Waves: Relaxing Studying Music, Brain Power, Focus Concentration Music ☯161.” YouTube, 26 June 2014, youtu.be/WPni755-Krg. Accessed 14 June 2016.

Author Last Name, First name or Screen name. “Title of comment, if one is present.” Comment on “Title of Video in Title Case, Inside Quotation Marks.” Title of Website in Italics and Title Case. Publisher or Organization (if different from website), Date of Publication, URL. Access date.

Kid Zarathustra. “Very cool! I didn’t know the Purple People Eater was a Belter.” Comment on “Explore The Solar System: 360 Degree Interactive Tour!” YouTube, 12 Feb. 2016, youtu.be/0ytyMKa8aps. Accessed 17 Feb. 2016.

“Title of Episode in Quotation Marks and Title Case.” Title of TV Show in Italics and Title Case, season number, episode number, Network, Original Air Date, Streaming Service, URL. Access date.

“Carded and Discarded.” Freaks and Geeks, season 1, episode 7, NBC, 10 Jan. 2000. Netflix, www.netflix.com/watch/70253718?trackId=13752289&tctx=0%2C6%2C4996f0e8-0b8e-445c-92b7-7ff39bb2ac67-51662133. Accessed 14 Nov. 2016.

Creator Last name, First name. Title of Work in Italics and Title Case. Date of composition, medium of composition, Name of Institution, Location, URL if accessed online. Access date if accessed online.

Whistler, James McNeill. Symphony in White, No.1: The White Girl. 1861-62, oil on canvas, National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C. nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.12198.html. Accessed 30 Oct. 2016.

If the source is a reproduction or a print, include the container information, as noted in the MLA Overview.

Creator Last name, First name. Title of Work in Italics and Title Case. Date of composition, medium of composition, Name of Institution, Location. Title of Container in Italics and Title Case, edited or written by First name Last name, volume or edition, Publisher, Date of Publication, page numbers, URL if accessed online. Access date if accessed online.

Whistler, James McNeill. Symphony in White, No.1: The White Girl. 1861-62, oil on canvas, National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C. James McNeill Whistler, written by Richard Dorment, Harry N. Abrams, 1995, p. 77.

Artist Last name, First name or Screen name. “Title of Artwork in Title Case, Inside Quotation Marks.” Name of Site in Italics and Title Case, Sponsor/Publisher of website, Date of Publication, URL. Access date.

Smalley, Travess. “Vector Weave.” Travess Smalley, Foxy Productions, 1 Oct. 2014, www.travesssmalley.com/. Accessed 10 Dec. 2016.

Social Media

Author Last Name, First name or Screen name. “Full text of tweet in quotation marks.” Twitter, Date of Publication, Time of publication, URL. Access date.

@wilw. “Okay, now I’m going back to work. Thanks for listening.” Twitter, 16 Nov. 2016, 6:21 p.m., twitter.com/wilw/status/799029592820285440. Accessed 17 Nov. 2016.

Author Last name, First name, or Username or Page Name. “Title of Facebook page, inside quotation marks.” Facebook, URL. Access date.

“Department of Focused Inquiry, VCU.” Facebook, www.facebook.com/FocusedInquiryVCU/. Accessed 9 Dec. 2016.

Gordon, Jessica. “Jessica Gordon.” Facebook, www.facebook.com/JeJssc. Accessed 13 Dec. 2016.

Last name, First name or Screen name. “The first several words of the post in quotation marks” or a brief description, if there is no text. Name of platform in italics, Date of Publication, URL. Access date.

Mutantarachnid. Image of Ichthyosaurus larkini. Instagram, 9 Sept. 2016, www.instagram.com/p/BNotf8WBCqF/. Accessed 13 Dec. 2016.

Author Last name, First name or Screen name. “Title of Post in Quotation Marks.” Name of Website in Italics and Title Case, Publisher or Sponsor, Date of Publication, URL. Access date.

canquilt. “I’ve herd [sic] good things about Taylor’s Barbershop on Midlothian in the city.” Reddit, 24 Oct. 2016, www.reddit.com/r/rva/comments/58zhe4/black_barbershops/. Accessed 1 Dec. 2016.

Author Last name, First name or Screen name. “Title of Post in Quotation Marks.” Name of Blog in Italics and Title Case, Publisher or Sponsor, Date of Publication, URL. Access date.

Morton, Timothy. “The OOO Logic Square: A Map of Different Ontologies.” Ecology Without Nature, Blogger, 18 Mar. 2016, www.ecologywithoutnature.blogspot.com/2016/03/the-ooo-logic-square-map-of-different.html. Accessed 23 Nov. 2016.

Author Last name, First name or Screen name. Comment on “Title of Post in Quotation Marks.” Name of Website in Italics and Title Case, Publisher or Sponsor, Date of Publication, URL. Access date.

D. E. M. Comment on “The OOO Logic Square: A Map of Different Ontologies.” Ecology Without Nature, Blogger, 18 Mar. 2016, www.ecologywithoutnature.blogspot.com/2016/03/the-ooo-logic-square-map-of-different.html. Accessed 14 Dec. 2016.

Additional Sources

Author last name, First name or Publisher of Site. Title of Site in Italics and Title Case, Date of Publication, URL. Access date.

American Cancer Society. American Cancer Society, 2016, www.cancer.org/. Accessed 13 Dec. 2016.

Author Last name, First name or Publisher of Site. “Title of Page.” Title of site in italics, Date of Publication, URL. Access date.

Mosley, Caroline. “Since Katrina: A Decade of NOAA Hurricane Research.” National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 27 Aug. 2015, research.noaa.gov. Accessed 13 Dec. 2016.

Author Last name, First name. Title of Dissertation or Thesis in Italics and Title Case. Dissertation or Thesis, School, Year of Publication, URL if accessed online. Access date if accessed online.

Ogston-Nobile, Paula L. The Division of Family Work Among Fathers and Mothers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Implications for Parents and Family Functioning. Dissertation, Virginia Commonwealth University, 2014, scholarscompass.vcu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=4429&context=etd. Accessed 28 Oct. 2016.

Speaker Last name, First name. “Title of Project in Quotation Marks.” Title of Conference or Meeting, Name of Organization or Sponsor, Date of Presentation, Venue, City. Type of Presentation.

Hogan, Linda. “The Great Line: The Long Connection of Earth and Other Beings.” ASLE Eleventh Biennial Conference, The Association for the Study of Literature and Environment, 24 June 2015, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID. Plenary Session.

Author Last name, First name or Screen name. “Subject Line of Email in Quotation Marks.” Received by First Name Last Name, Date Sent.

826 National. “Your 826 Newsletter.” Received by A. J. Colombo, 17 Sept. 2015.

Interviewee Last name, First name. Personal interview. Conducted by Name of interviewer. Date of Interview.

Watkins, Cynthia. Personal interview. Conducted by John Smith. 12 Aug. 2016.

For interviews of multiple people, list all interviewees.

Gordon, Jessica, Meriah Crawford, Ryan Cales, Bonnie Boaz, and Hillary Miller. Personal interview. Conducted by Peter Stauffer. 9 Sept. 2015.

Interviewee Last name, First name. “Title of Interview in Quotation Marks.” Title of Website or Project in Italics, Publisher or Sponsor, Date of Publication, URL if accessed online. Access date if accessed online.

Gross, Terry. “Writer Mat Johnson on Being Biracial in America.” Fresh Air, NPR, 16 Sept. 2016, www.npr.org/podcasts/381444908/fresh-air. Accessed 21 Oct. 2016.

Privacy Statement